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Ambidexterity – A New Paradigm for Organizations Facing Complexity

Abstract

Complexity is rapidly and inexorably leading the global economy towards new configurations and new dynamics; within this (ever fluid and unstable) framework, the strategic dualities that govern organizations and shape their strategic choices are not only multiplying but also interacting and generating unprecedented challenges: new pairs of (apparent) paradoxes occur, sophisticated interdependencies take place amongst them, and therefore new approaches in search for strategic solutions are imperatively asked. Against this background, the main goal of the paper is to suggest a paradigm of organizational ambidexterity – which gradually integrates various angles and valences into partial solutions and eventually comes up with a complex construct incorporating different levels of organizational ambidexterity and multiple patterns of ambidextrous behavior – able to (dynamically) position organizations on the coordinates of the complex global economy, while providing them with the essential tools needed to achieve strategic competitiveness. Thus, by addressing a major organizational challenge (strategic competitiveness) through the lens of complexity (seen both as defining feature of nowadays and science that provides the instruments to deal with it) and advocating for the solution of ambidexterity, the paper will enrich the theory of strategic management and will offer businesses an alternative to their strategic approaches.

Open access
Bitcoin in the Scientific Literature – A Bibliometric Study

Abstract

Since 2012, there has been growing interest in bitcoin scientific research from different fields, including computer science and engineering, economics, business and finance, law and regulatory. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate bitcoin literature based on the structures and networks of science, as a first step in the research of this new phenomenon. Analysing the growing scientific literature on bitcoin published between 2012 and 2019, we provided useful insights on academic research in this field regarding publication year, type and category, authors, journals and citations. The source of the 887 documents which support the study was Web of Science Core Collection. Using VOSviewer software we have designed bibliometric maps based on text and bibliographic data. Our study provides a knowledge area map that identifies and evaluates the links between authors and countries distribution, the conceptual structure of the field, the structure and connections of most cited papers and journals. Resuming our findings, we note a concentration of the interest on some keywords (bitcoin, cryptocurrency, blockchain) and on some influential authors (with more than 100 citations per article). As a pure expression of digital economy, the research on bitcoin as an economic concept counts only 33.5% from the total contributions in the field.

Open access
Conventional Theory’s Relevance: Evidence from Japan

Abstract

The formidable surge in the volume of international trade after 1960 stimulated surveys designed to ascertain to what degree the commercial flows among nations reflected the structure of their economies, in other words, how tight was the correlation between international exchanges and the specific attributes of participating nations. In fact, scholars were keen to test the relevance of the conventional Heckscher-Ohlin theory, that is, to what extent did nations’ exports reflect their endowment with factors of production, more specifically, whether their exports used their abundant factors intensively. I try to show that, although most of the tests reached their purpose in that they confirmed the conventional theory’s predictions, in certain cases such as Japan, whose economy is arguably idiosyncratic, factor specificity is more relevant than factor intensity in explaining, not only the country’s international specialization but also the premises of its uncanny 20th century ascendance to the top of the world economy.

Open access
Dimensions of National Culture – Cross-cultural Theories

Abstract

Over the past three decades, after Hofstede presented his proposal about cultural differences, many authors have presented their dimensions of national culture. The aim of this article is to give a synthesis of the proposal from significant authors and show a set of models of cultural dimensions based on theoretical and pragmatic analysis such as models of Hofstede, Trompenaars, GLOBE, Inglehart, Schartz. Also, examples used in this paper help more to understand the importance of research national culture.

Open access
The Effect of Credit Collection Policy on Portfolio at Risk of Microfinance Institutions in Tanzania

Abstract

This paper presents the results of the study on the effect of credit collection policy on portfolio at risk of microfinance institutions in Tanzania. The study used cross-sectional survey data of microfinance institutions in three regions of Dar es salaam, Morogoro and Dodoma. Random sampling was employed to obtain a sample of 219 respondents in all three regions. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the effect of credit collection policy on portfolio at risk of microfinance institutions. Results show that, there is a positive relationship between interest rates charged and portfolio at risk of microfinance institutions. On the other hand, the variable for grace period on loans and loan sizes to borrowers had a negative relationship with portfolio at risk of microfinance institutions. The study recommends that, microfinance institutions in Tanzania need to reconsider the interest rates charged to their clients to enhance sustainability of their loan portfolios. Moreover, microfinance institutions need to enhance provision of grace period to their customers. Also, establish efficient loan product sizes which suffice diverse client’s needs. That would encourage and broaden client repayments, contribute to financial performance and reduced risk of portfolio of microfinance institutions.

Open access
Equity Risk: Measuring Return Volatility Using Historical High-Frequency Data

Abstract

Market Volatility has been investigated at great lengths, but the measure of historical volatility, referred to as the relative volatility, is inconsistent. Using historical return data to calculate the volatility of a stock return provides a measure of the realized volatility. Realized volatility is often measured using some method of calculating a deviation from the mean of the returns for the stock price, the summation of squared returns, or the summation of absolute returns. We look to the stocks that make up the DJIA, using tick-by-tick data from June 2015 - May 2016. This research helps to address the question of what is the better measure of realized volatility? Several measures of volatility are used as proxies and are compared at four estimation time intervals. We review these measures to determine a closer/better fit estimator to the true realized volatility, using MSE, MAD, Diebold-Mariano test, and Pitman Closeness. We find that when using a standard deviation based on transaction level returns, shorter increments of time, while containing some levels of noise, are better estimates of volatility than longer increments.

Open access
Gender and Overconfidence in the Kauffman Firm Survey

Abstract

While an emerging line of research has begun to examine how firm survival correlates with the psychological trait of overconfidence, almost none of this work looks at how this relationship is mediated or modified by the minority status of the individual within the area of entrepreneurship. We employ a proportional hazard survival model and analyze the Kauffman Firm Survey (KFS) of entrepreneurs during the period of 2004-2012. We find that, while overconfidence relates to firm survival, it is more strongly related to survival for female than for male entrepreneurs. Our analysis is unique in examining the trait of overconfidence for small firm survival, and it is the first that we know of to stratify the effects of this overconfidence by gender. The present work has implications for possible methods and strategies to promote the entrepreneurship of individuals from underrepresented groups, with an eye towards owner-overconfidence helping female-led firms to survive the first few years of a firm’s existence.

Open access
Housing Construction as a Leading Economic Indicator

Abstract

The construction industry, and especially residential building construction activity, represents a significant part of a country’s general economy, directly affecting GDP through construction, maintenance and renovation, as well as indirectly with notarial acts and banking transactions. Indeed, in many economies, residential building activity is at the heart of economic growth and, consequently, acts as a regulator in economic development. The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate on the significance of pursuing a suitable government policy on the real estate market. The research objectives are: a) to review the existing literature regarding the importance of the housing sector in the general economy; b) to “capture” the link between residential construction activity and economic development in Balkan Peninsula, pursuing supplementary research for the country of Albania; and c) to present the results of the aforementioned study in order to draw important conclusions.

Open access
Knowledge Retention within Small and Mediumsized Enterprises

Abstract

In the constantly changing nowadays economy, all organizations have to be prepared to embrace all technological innovation and become good competitors in the market place all over the world. This need puts a special emphasize on the ability of a company to evolve through employee ability to grow professional. The retention of good, qualified employee is a complex process, because of the importance of the knowledge for the financial efficiency of a company. This article aims is to examine knowledge retention as an advantage of companies in this era of information, an era in which organizations view their employees as the main sources of competitive edge, acknowledging, at the same time, the challenge of reaching the knowledge and sharing it with all the stakeholders.

Open access
Macroeconomic Implications of US Sanctions on Iran: A Sectoral Financial Balances Analysis

Abstract

Iran is facing a severe macroeconomics crisis after the US (re)imposed sanctions on its oil and gas exports in May 2018, followed by additional sanctions on metal exports in 2019. Its exports have collapsed triggering a contraction of the economy along with accelerating inflation and depreciating currency. Using the sectoral financial balances (SFB) model, we study the interrelationship between several macroeconomic parameters maintaining stock-flow consistency across time and sectors of the economy. Fiscal and monetary policy cannot reverse the consequences of the sanctions although fiscal deficits as a percentage of GDP will see a rise to accommodate the domestic private sector’s desire to accumulate financial asset accumulation. The lack of a strong monetary policy mechanism in Iran may, however, be unable to quell the impact of expansionary fiscal policy on inflation and depreciating rial. Given the limited macroeconomic policy options open to Iran in dealing with the crisis Iran, the only option may be political – a return to the negotiating table with the US.

Open access