The Irish Government has identified research and development (R&D) and innovation as among the key pillars of growth within the economy. To achieve this growth, R&D tax incentives, which are adopted in advanced economies, are set into policy to encourage firms to innovate, thus, making companies more competitive and productive. One of the key enablers to driving R&D is a well-designed, competitive and sustainable tax policy to support the activity. However, evidence on the effectiveness of R&D tax incentives for innovation is largely anecdotal and the influence of innovation on firm-level taxation is still underexplored, in terms of and empirical examination. This paper sets out to review the recent trends and views of industry regarding R&D tax credits.
The energy sector is characterized by market and monopoly activities. Monopoly activities include network activities, transmission and distribution of electricity, and transport and distribution of natural gas. For this reason, the revenue of the network activities is defined as allowed income, and it is under the control of the national energy regulator. In Croatia, this is the Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency. The allowed revenues of the network system operator in the Croatian energy sector are defined by the methodologies for individual network activities, which are based on the method of eligible costs. Network activities are usually capital-intensive activities. Capital cost is an element of the eligible cost method and is accounted for as a weighted average cost of capital (WACC). WACC affects the allowed revenue of the network system operator and the network tariff. It depends on the interest rates on debt capital, the risk-free rate, the market risk premium and the corporate tax rate. Changing the interest rate on the capital market, which also depends on the credit risk of the country, affects both the change in WACC and the change of tariffs for transport / transmission of energy. Amortization and operating expenses of the network operator, approved by the energy regulator, also have a significant impact on allowed revenues. The impact of the WACC change on the allowed revenue and network tariffs of network system operators has a different impact on the network tariffs, which depends on the structure of the eligible costs of a particular network system operator. Changing WACC affects the changes in tariffs of the network system operator. The aim of the paper is to determine how an interest rate change affects the WACC and how the change in WACC affects the change in the allowed revenue and the network tariff of the gas transport operator and the transmission of electricity in Croatia. The paper will analyse the tariffs of electricity transmission and natural gas transport in Croatia and compare them with those in the European Union.
Capital structure refers to the delicate balance between equity and debt that a company uses to finance its assets. It is typically expressed as a debt-to-equity or debt-to-capital ratio, with the components usually located on the right side of the company’s balance sheet. Capital structure can exert great influence on the company’s risk profile and ability to leverage its operations. For this reason, the authors conducted an investigation of the capital structure of 16 joint stock companies listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange comprising CROBEX, the equity index of Croatia for a three-year period starting in 2015 and ending in 2017. The study demonstrates that many CROBEX-listed companies are very risk averse and choose to remain debt-free. Some are, however, starting to discover the potential offered by financial leverage and have slowly started adjusting their capital structure. In conclusion, capital structure is slowly becoming an issue worthy of discussion on the corporate agendas in Croatia.
The paper is based on a scientific literature analysis and, by examining scientific insights, it focuses on the assumption that Big Data Analytics (BDA) is an alternative used in modern organizations in decision making at e-mass service customization. An overall orientation to BDA application in management processes is presented as a useful construct not only for improving the decision-making procedure but also as a relevant source for strategic planning, process and cost optimization activities as well as for changes in supply chain and risk management. The data was obtained through the scientific literature analysis and systematized theoretical insights of the BDA influence in both possibility and obstacle dimensions to e-mass service customization.
The market, economic and financial risks are the most important risks, which determine the quality and performance of small and medium sizes enterprises. The main objective of the article is to evaluate the most important sources of market, economic and financial risk between Slovak and Czech SMEs according gender and size of enterprise. The questionnaires of 895 entrepreneurs were collected and prepare on evaluating in the year 2018. The statistical hypotheses were accepted through the mathematical method as is Z-score. The gender of entrepreneur and size of enterprises between Slovak and Czech entrepreneurs is a significant factor of evaluating the sources of economic risk, as is development of the tax and insurance burden; weak availability of the financial resources (loans, foundations); development of the interest rates; growing prices of all types of energy. According to the evaluation of entrepreneurs, the intensity of sources of economic risk in Slovak business environment is higher than in Czech business environment.
The aim of the article is to present the issue of Marketing Automation (MA, automation of marketing) and the possibilities of its use in the operational activity of research and scientific entities. MA is a modern, advanced technological solution aimed at improving marketing processes and wider use of data on the market and customers. In recent years it has been one of the most important trends in modern marketing, at the same time posing a real challenge for organizations operating in the field of science and research. The article discusses the experience of the Central Mining Institute, related to the implementation of solutions such as Marketing Automation, treated here as a case study.
The paper is focused on the results of the first conducted sectoral interim evaluation in Croatia, that of the Croatian Tourism Development Strategy till 2020. The authors reflect on the methodology used, the applied approach, the objectives and scope of the recently implemented interim evaluation of the mentioned Strategy. They comment on the purpose and functions of this sectoral evaluation and observe objectively its role from the point of view of achieving effectiveness, long term, and concrete and sustainable development impacts in the sector of tourism. The main findings of the conducted evaluation are presented, based on a number of held interviews and a survey with the main policy makers, civil servants as well as all key stakeholders in the tourism industry. Particular focus is given to evaluation questions and judgement criteria based on the evaluation criteria of effectiveness, impact and sustainability. The authors indicate some of the positive achievements, and particularly the current problems and challenges in the segment of tourism in Croatia in the period until 2020 and beyond. Along with observations related to the issues of accountability in the sector, the paper also provides reflections on the learning effects as the end result of such an evaluation, contributing to further policy development and policy learning in the sector of tourism. The authors indicate that their experience with this first interim evaluation could serve as a good practice example for conducting similar sectoral evaluations in Croatia as well as a tool for further long term development of tourism in the country, since the sector is of pivotal importance for Croatia’s local, regional and urban development as well as its overall economic competitiveness. Particular attention is given to some of the noted deficiencies and needs for further improvements in this sector, vital for Croatia’s further development. Recommendations are provided for improvements of the overall Croatian tourism development policy, with specific focus on the effectiveness of the so far achieved results as well as sustainable implementation of the Strategy and overall policy, aiming at reaching major and more concrete development impacts in the field of tourism.
The paper examines the relationship between the Dark Triad personality traits and leadership outcomes from the perspective of Generation Z. A quasi-experiment with hypothetical leaders’ scenarios as stimulus was applied in this empirical research.
The paper analyses the possibilities of how to increase customer loyalty by using different website quality tools. The research problem is defined as a question: How to link website quality and consumer loyalty? Data was gathered using scientific literature analysis and analysing other existing research. The results were provided based on the experts’ interviews.
This paper aims to analyse and examine consumer behaviour based on different variables (age, gender, level of education, income, customer care, delivery time), and the impact of those variables on consumer satisfaction on domestic and foreign online services in Kosovo. The data represented in the paper have been collected on 2017 and 2019. The majority of demographic variables (except gender and income) as independent variables have shown to be significant in explaining consumer satisfaction from online services. On the contrary, the level of customers’ gender and income have shown to be statistically insignificant (p=0.143 and p=0.264 respectively; where α=5%). In addition, income has shifted from being insignificant in 2017 to significant in 2019. It can be inferred that the strongest correlation has shifted towards the price level of the 4 P’s of Marketing with total customer satisfaction from online services (r=.996), followed by customer care (r=.990).