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Anti-BEPS Measures and Their Impact on Business Performance of Multinational Enterprises

Abstract

This paper discusses the harmful tax practices of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and the fight of international organizations against them. We focus on the anti-tax base erosion and profit shifting project (anti-BEPS project) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), namely its 15 actions, which we present in the first part of the paper, using descriptive and analytical methods. In the second part, we use critical and synthetic methods to assess how the selected aspects of multinational business will be impacted with described actions. Our conclusions show that MNEs will have to adapt their business structures and plans according to new tax regulations, which will also lower their profit levels due to unavailability of established harmful tax structures for lowering their tax bases. At the same time, our results indicate that the legal approach in introducing new measures on the subject field, lead to legal uncertainty in tax matters. Due to the scope of analysed problems, it was impossible to introduce individual problems in depth; however, we provide readers with the general characteristics and goals of introduced actions that are necessary for understanding our evaluation of their impact on certain fields of international business. Our paper contributes to literature and practice, as it provides general insight into recent and important international tax law developments that enterprises will have to consider when doing business across borders.

Open access
Correlation of Recruitment and Selection of Human Resources and the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises

Abstract

Human resources are the most significant resource of a company; this is especially true for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in which they create the company’s competitive advantage because of their uniqueness. Human resources manage other resources and are responsible for the efficiency and success of the organization. The main goal of this research is to determine whether and to what extent the recruitment and selection of human resources are in correlation with the performance of SMEs. The research was conducted in SMEs in the Herzegovina Region in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in April 2019. An original questionnaire was created for the survey, within which top managers views on recruitment and selection of human resources were collected as well as the four-perspective performance of the business based on the Balanced Scorecard model. SPSS 20.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive measurements used for data analysis include mean, standard deviation, and mode. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test distribution normality. To test the correlation of variables and to determine the significance of differences, the Pearson correlation coefficient and t-test for independent samples were used. The level of significance was set to p = 0.05. The research results showed the correlation between the studied variables and the correlation of recruitment and selection of human resources and the performance of SMEs viewed from all four perspectives. A limitation of the research is the sample size and the sampling method. The results can be applied in the human resource management of SMEs.

Open access
The Fulfilment of Tax Obligation in Case of Slovenian Tax Residents Working in Other Countries

Abstract

We study the impact of selected characteristics of Slovenian tax residents with income from work with source in other countries on their fulfilment of tax obligations from this income. We received anonymised data for the year 2015 from Slovenian Financial administration, which includes selected taxation data, some demographic variables as well as some data from other registers. On the sample of 9016 taxpayers of personal income tax from the group with income from work with source in other countries we found that with knowledge of some characteristics of taxpayers it is possible to discern a higher or lower probability of fulfilment of their tax obligations. Tools as the here presented model can help to increase the effectiveness of targeted inspection taxation supervision. The analysis has shown that groups of taxpayers with common characteristics share also a common pattern of the fulfilment of their tax obligations.

Open access
How Festival Experience Quality Influence Visitor Satisfaction? A Quantitative Approach

Abstract

The purpose of research presented in this paper is to determine how selected characteristics of a city event affect the satisfaction of visitors. In particular, the aim is to identify factors related to event atmospherics that determine visitor satisfaction in the city destination in continental part of Croatia. For this purpose, questionnaire was created based on previously conducted research by Bitner (1992), Oliver (1980, 1997), Baker and Crompton (2000), and Lee, Lee, Lee, and Babin (2008). It comprised measures for assessing event atmospherics, visitor satisfaction, and demographic characteristics of the respondents. The research was conducted among visitors of a city event that takes place every year during December 2018. A total of 191 questionnaires were obtained during the one-month period. Principal component analysis was utilised to determine the factor structure of city event atmospherics. In addition, multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which factors may serve as predictors of visitor satisfaction in city event context. As a result, the analyses revealed four factors related to city event atmospherics. In addition, these factors positively and significantly affected visitor satisfaction, indicating that they have important role in determining visitor satisfaction in a city event context. These findings can contribute to the knowledge advancement of the city events, their influence on tourist satisfaction, and consequently, to better understand specific groups of visitors as well as establish efficient marketing and promotion strategies.

Open access
Importance of Innovation Resources for Market Orientation – Financial Performance Link: Mediating Role of Proactive Market Orientation

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between market orientation, innovation resources and companies’ financial performance. Focus is put on the mediator role of proactive market orientation (PMO) in the relationship between reactive market orientation (RMO), innovation resources and financial performance in the context of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Research builds on reliable scales. Four hundred and fifteen usable questionnaires were collected from companies in Slovenia with more than 20 employees. The results show a strong and positive relationship between RMO and PMO. The impact of RMO on innovativeness as an element of organisational culture is both positive and stronger than the impact of PMO. PMO proved to have a significant positive influence on the capacity to innovate. While innovativeness alone does not directly influence financial performance, the results do confirm the positive impact of an organisational capacity to innovate on financial performance. The finding of our paper is that when PMO was included as a mediator between RMO and the capacity to innovate, the result was that this indirect impact proved to be one of the strongest in the model. Also, it proves that in CEE countries, it is important to stress the influence of market and market orientation in building innovation resources and consequently financial performance. The limitation of the current study is that we considered the relationship only among few marketing resources and organisational performance. In future research, additional measures of market performance may be introduced as mediators between innovation resources and financial performance.

Open access
Smart Cities Marketing and Its Conceptual Grounds

Abstract

The most frequent definition of the smart city in the literature defines it as a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life. Therefore, a city should always be capable of identifying and effectively resolving its key development challenges in order to improve the quality of life of its citizens. Regarding economics approach, the authors rely on endogenous growth theory derived from Arrow. The authors explore the role of smart city management and governance, which will have to combine the need for capital with the need to ensure the environment that this capital will enhance modern urban producing factors. Hence, the authors discuss communication aspects and the importance of the evolution toward smart communities, where the idea is not on making places smart anymore, but rather focus on humans and their needs. For an emerging smart city, market built up of smaller cities and municipalities describes the changing role of marketing and the shift of roles in its processes in order to show the urge to become familiar with the spirit of open innovation and rethink marketing strategy in this emerging reality.

Open access
The Tax Burden CGE Analysis for Slovakia and Slovenia

Abstract

In the paper, the static computable general equilibrium model for Slovakia and Slovenia is used for a tax burden analysis. There was considered simultaneous 1% increase in taxes on primary factors, on firms’ and government domestic and imported purchases, on import taxes, on output (or income) tax, on private domestic and imported consumption taxes and export subsidies. The direct tax burden as well as the allocative efficiency effects of a tax, the welfare effects and welfare decomposition of such change for both countries is analysed. The most sensitive sectors on tax rate changes is heavy manufacturing and processed food and the most distorting effect has the tax increase on private consumption tax. The government’s tax increase should generate return at least 105.75% of its costs in Slovakia and 101.92% in Slovenia, otherwise the welfare will decline.

Open access
Trade Barriers and Exports between Western Balkan Countries

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to identify the trade barriers imposed by the Western Balkan countries. All barriers, whether tariff or non-tariff, undoubtedly impede the normal development of trade between countries. Therefore, the paper examines merchandise trade patterns in the Western Balkan region and tries to identify the main drivers of and obstacles to intra-regional trade. Intra-regional trade comes second in importance, after trade with the European Union (EU); it underperformed and was in decline in the last few years. In the region with political challenges as the Western Balkans, non-tariff barriers significantly reduce trade exchanges between the countries in this region. Currently, the trade and political disputes (tax rate 100%) between Kosovo and Serbia showed that the imposed tariffs in trade created a political reaction between the countries, interrupting the dialogue between these countries. The originality and value of the paper are reflected in its dealing with such topics as trade barriers, genesis in ethnic and political disputes that are prominent in the Balkan region.

Open access
Unions and Decisionistic-Restricted Involvement in the CSR Debate – An Explanation to a Cooperative Approach

Abstract

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) implies the responsibility of companies for sustainable management in economic, ecological and social terms. The majority of CSR works in science and research were written primarily with the focus on ethics (moral vs. market economy), bearer of responsibility (state vs. companies) and management (e.g. best practice, manuals). This article comes from the perspective of a stakeholder group that is constantly mentioned but receive insufficient attention: unions. Research indicated early on that unions leaned back in the European CSR-debate since its beginning 2001. Based on the case of German unions, the author will analyse their motivation by studying their statements. The systematic literature review provides the basis for his qualitative content analysis of reasonable motives. The results show the unions encountering a complex environment with diverse interests, in which it is difficult to position themselves. Furthermore CSR requirements placed on companies were considered, by economy, to be set very high. Although CSR is not driven by legal regulations, it unfolds quasi-binding rules. For those reasons, it is not surprising that unions were sceptical and restrictive. With its analysis of a defensive CSR strategy, the study contributes to progress in the field of engagement in international debates. The author deals in a theoretical-conceptual way with the existing research results in this field, invalidates them and presents his own attempt with explanation. His explanatory approach extends the existing explanatory patterns by a new perspective for the problem described.

Open access
What You Post is What You Get: The Mediator Role of Reached Individuals in the Causal Relationship among Posted Content Types and Follower Counts on Facebook

Abstract

This paper discusses the causal relationships among posted content types, the number of reached individuals and follower counts of a Facebook brand page by investigating the communication forms of a Hungarian Twitch.tv live streamer. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the analyses’ distributional properties is followed by the Kruskal-Wallis H test, which determines significant differences in content types in terms of their total reach, reaction, comment and share counts. The Kendall’s tau-b tests are performed for the examination of interrelationships among the retrieved Facebook metrics. Furthermore, mediation analysis is conducted, wherein the antecedent role is taken by post type, the follower count appears as a consequent variable and the total reach count takes the mediator role in the proposed model. The results of the analysis conclude that the analysed Facebook metrics display statistically significant, strong and positive correlations with one another; additionally, post type has a strong, significant and direct influence on reached individuals and although they do not show a significant, direct influence on follower count, they display a significant, total effect on it. The paper thereby contributes to the existing online brand personality and gaming research, offering value to the research domain of online marketing and communication as well.

Open access