This study aims to investigate the short-run and long-run relationship between economic variables and the unemployment rate in South Asian countries. A panel vector error correction model is used to establish the long-run and the short-run relationship between the unemployment rate and the selected economic variables. Data were collected from WDI, WGI, and FDSD for the years 1994–2016. In order to determine the direction of the relationship, the Granger causality test was used. Impulse response functions (IRFs) and forecast error variance decomposition were used to assess the stability of the relationship between the unemployment rate and economic variables over time. The finding of the study showed a negative and significant relationship at the 5% level of significance between governance, internet users, mobile cellular subscriptions, fixed broadband subscriptions, and human capital and the unemployment rate of South Asian economies. On the other hand, financial activity (credit) and population growth had a positive and significant relationship with the unemployment rate. Finally, the Granger causality test showed bidirectional causality between governance and unemployment rate, while internet users and fixed broadband subscriptions showed unidirectional causality with the unemployment rate; furthermore, population growth, financial activity (credit), mobile cellular subscriptions, and human capital showed no causality in the short run.
This study aims at presenting the legally, technically, and economically empowered suggestion for a clear definition of a competitive market of gas fuels and electricity of a Member State in order to be utilized within trans-border trade of these utilities, as required by the European Union (EU) legislation. Thus, this study addresses, first of all, the issue of the division of the national gas fuel and electricity market into sections and separating these market segments that are more susceptible to the existence of competition in the trans-border dimension. This division is a model that reflects every internal market that is self-sufficient and distinguished in technical terms which has been established and is functioning within one or more Member States. The suggested structural, subject-related division of the market into sections, a competitive one (with its segments), a balancing one, and a technical one, makes it possible to determine which fragments of the market prevail over merely the technical security of ensuring continuity and quality of electricity supplies at the national level. Public forms of electricity and gas fuel trading take first place. Thus, second, the issues of legal and business conditions for operation in the energy section of the commodity exchange, regulated market, or open tenders for purchase of energy and interdependence between public forms of electricity or fuel gas trading and standards in the common electricity market have become the subject of this study. The advantage of a commodity exchange that establishes transparent conditions for public trading transactions involving these goods and provides pricing information for actors in the market cannot be overestimated. A commodity exchange enhances competition and is instrumental in the reduction of prices for ultimate clients. The completed analysis aims at reviewing public forms of trading as the instruments for achievement of the objectives of the national energy law and a component for a common energy market in the perspective of development of trans-border transmission capabilities. Legal multi-centricity and multi-aspectual nature of the addressed issues form a structure of relations that has affected the selection of the research methodology. Three research methods were adopted as the main principles that, bearing in mind a different context in which they are used, are treated to be complementary. The first one is an interdisciplinary research analysis, taking account of the context of functioning in the EU law environment in the interpretation of the national law provisions and technical sciences (and thus, e.g., laws of physics, properties of energy, technical aspects of functioning of the power industry as a system of interdependent relations of installations and grids) and economic sciences (e.g., a concept of the market, competition, operation of the commodity exchange). References to technical or economic sciences allowed to maintain the clarity of the above considerations and render the addressed issues better in practice. The legal and dogmatic method is an indispensable supplement of the above method; in this method, the process of interpretation of legal regulations is based on the jurisprudence and case law which should be referred, in particular, to the national law; it is made complete by the analysis of the economic practice. The selection of the concept analysis method (a linguistic one) as the third method should be justified by the undertaken attempts to define in a precise manner the content and the scope of meaning of general, generic concepts making references, as a rule, to a broad spectrum of business operations, the application of which in the EU legislation is a feature of this legal order established on the basis of the elements of the continental (established, statute) law and flexible common law.
Business entities operated in the form of capital companies, to maintain reliability and transparency of the activities conducted, should observe general supervisory framework of legal nature. The primary objective of the information policy is to provide stock market participants with appropriate standards of company transparency which through the corporate governance regulations should lead to the improvement in the quality of financial reporting. Financial statements should be reliable as it is only then that their aims and targets are met, and the image of business they depict should be created according to the true and fair principle, invoking the responsibility of individuals supervising the process of drawing up a financial statement. The aim of the paper is to indicate the essence of the relationship between the quality of financial statements and the application of corporate governance principles. The paper uses the analysis of regulations and review of literature in the field of corporate governance and reporting of listed companies. The results of the analysis confirm that the quality of reported information determines the effectiveness of corporate supervision; that integrated reporting (IR) is a tool enabling organizations to communicate their value to investors; and that corporate supervision allows said organizations to adopt the comprehensive approach in developing sustainable value.
This article addresses Japan’s economy, its new economic policy package, which is known as Abenomics. The centerpiece of Abenomics has been the three “economic arrows” targeted at aggressive monetary policy, flexible fiscal policy, and growth strategy. This article focuses on Abenomics and shows the measures undertaken by the administration. The research question is: to what extent the policy package contributes to stimulating the economy? This question relates to the main problem of the effectiveness of Abenomics. The main purpose of this article is an attempt to evaluate Abenomics from the perspective of 5 years since the time of its announcement.
Since “Belt and Road initiative” (BRI) has been launched, the major volume of academic studies focus on the consideration of Eurasian land and maritime transport routes. Experts on Chinese foreign policy and geopolitical strategy emphasize possible positive and negative aspects of the initiative for the states involved. The business and political circles from Eastern Baltic Sea region are looking for possible ways to attract cargo to its ports. Yet, the possible transformations of Chinese foreign trade flows in the context of BRI are now under academic consideration. We focus on the evaluation of ports’ possibilities to handle Chinese cargo. The key issues of our study include the choice of cargo transportation routes and opportunities to attract Chinese investment to expand port and logistics infrastructure. The methodology of the research is based on statistical data analysis for the further comparison of transport routes. Our empirical results demonstrate that Eastern Baltic Sea ports can attract little part of Chinese trade flows.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the level of similarity between financial systems in selected Central and Eastern European countries (CEE11) and four models of capitalism in Western Europe identified by B. Amable [The diversity of modern capitalism, 2003]. A comparative analysis in this institutional area was done on the basis of six variables. Three of them represent inputs, that is, institutional determinants, and other three variables describe outputs of institutional regulations. For each of them coefficients of similarity between a CEE11 country and a selected Western European country were calculated, and based on it the similarity hexagons were created. In this paper, two pictures of the institutional arrangements were taken: for 2005 and for 2014. Additionally, an analysis of changes that took place in institutional solutions in the CEE11 countries, based on the variables and the coefficients of similarity, was carried out.
The analyses showed that in the area of financial intermediation, the group of CEE11 countries in 2005 was characterized by the greatest similarity to the Continental model of capitalism. The same investigations carried out for 2014 indicate a significant shift in the analyzed area toward solutions typical of the Mediterranean model.
The purpose of this paper is to identify the understanding and strategic importance of the country of origin (COO) and its dimensions from the perspective of the emerging market firms.
A qualitative approach was applied using in-depth interviews with 11 informants from owners of emerging market companies of household appliances brands.
COO is perceived by managers of emerging markets’ firms as a multidimensional construct. In addition to the COO dimensions presented in the literature, informants indicate the following: country of technology/innovation origin, country of technical culture, country of service network localization, country of organizational culture origin (COOCO), and country of brand launching (COBL). Country of manufacturing (COM)/assembly/parts is perceived as a strategic imperative, first of all, from the sourcing strategy perspective, and it is less important from the marketing perspective than the country of brand origin (COBO).
This study contributes to existing literature by developing a deeper understanding of the COO dimensions from a perspective of emerging market companies.
This article explores Bruno Amable’s Diversity of Capitalism approach to analyze educational systems in the European Union (EU28). The main goal is to identify the main clusters of educational systems with regard to their institutional characteristics. Second goal of the analysis is to evaluate the impact of several EU policies and initiatives on the institutional structure of European educational systems. This article identified six clusters in terms of general education and five clusters in terms of higher education systems. The clustering shows, that – with some exceptions (notably the United Kingdom and Ireland) – European education systems have similar structure to other institutional areas, in particular, it confirms the existence of post-communist (in terms of Farkas) or patchwork (in terms of Rapacki et al.) capitalism. The article shows, as well, that subsystem of higher education is much less diverse, what may have a significance for future discussions on the capitalisms in the EU. Results suggests also that there exist significant differences in performance between the clusters, something that may have a crucial importance for an educational policy.
A neglected aspect of regional trade agreements (RTAs) is their protectionist potential. In times of a stagnating World Trade Organization (WTO), growing economic nationalism and skepticism about the merits of free trade and trade agreements, the paper examines to what extent recently signed RTAs really promote genuine free trade or rather foster sneaky protectionism under the guise of free trade. For this, the paper proposes an ideal-type free trade agreement benchmark model based on a classical liberal perspective and applies it in a multiple case study approach to assess three cases of recently concluded mega-RTAs: the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), the renegotiated North American trade agreement USCMA, and the Canada–European Union (EU) agreement CETA. The article shows that all of them are far from the classical liberal ideal of totally free trade and have a high content of back door protectionism suitable to raise trade barriers when politically opportune. In particular, the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement (USMCA) includes many clear protectionist provisions that might even outweigh its liberalizing stipulations, whereas CPTPP and CETA can be deemed net liberalizing. It concludes that given political economy constraints, RTAs can nevertheless remain a second-best solution to the classical liberal ideals of completely unhampered trade and unilateral liberalization provided that they remove more impediments to free exchange than they cement or create.