The study investigates the effect of informal sector tax proceeds on capital development in Lagos Metropolis. The study adopted Ex-post facto design to obtain secondary data, covering 20 years (2000–2019) from the Lagos State Internal Revenue Service and the Ministry of Budget and Planning. All the series were tested for normalities to determine the appropriateness of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression. The results of the study revealed that tax collected from the association, petty traders, and market men and women had a significant effect on capital development in Lagos Metropolis. It is evident from the monumental capital projects being executed by the government in the Metropolis. The study recommends that the government should not only create an enabling environment for the informal sector to thrive but also give all necessary support for its survival because the sector has contributed to the capital development of the Metropolis through tax revenue.
We examine the impact of the macroeconomic determinants of foreign direct investment inflows. We also investigate the moderating role of sanctions in FDI inflows into Iran. The results reveal that macro determinants such as infrastructure, exchange rate, inflation rate, investment return, and governance have a long-run effect on FDI inflows in Iran. Our findings also show that GDP growth rate and trade openness have no significant effect on FDI. Our results indicate that sanctions do not have a significant moderating role in the relationship between macroeconomic factors and FDI. Surprisingly, international sanctions have a positive relationship with FDI inflows in Iran. Furthermore, sanctions have a positive impact on the inflation rate and exchange rate in Iran. Finally, our findings show that sanctions have had a significant impact on Iran’s economic growth in recent years due to increasing the severity level of sanctions.
The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between government revenues and the economic growth of Nigeria. The study employs exploratory and ex-post facto research designs while using secondary form of data spanning from 1981 to 2018 collected from the Federal Inland Revenue Services (FIRS), National Bureau of Statistics and CBN statistical bulletin. The relationship is tested by using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression technique. The result reveals that federally received revenue and Value Added Tax (VAT) have a moderate positive relationship with the economic growth. The study provides evidence that there is a need for the government to formulate relevant revenue policies that will boost government income in order to have more favourable implication on the economy.
The general concept of this research is to elaborate on the specific aspect of the marketing performance point of view that has been used by exported SMEs business in a region in Indonesia called Yogyakarta. The aim of this research to analyze the relationship between innovation orientation, marketing communication orientation, international marketing, and marketing performance. The methodology of this research used path analysis, purposive sampling used in this research which only exported product of SMEs business met the criterion. The result showed that only the direct relationship between innovation orientation and marketing performance was not supported. It strengthens international marketing as a mediator between innovation orientation and marketing performance. Innovation orientation toward international marketing was accepted with path coefficient and international marketing toward marketing performance was accepted with path coefficient. Meanwhile, the strongest path coefficient showed by marketing communication orientation. It means that the successful marketing performance needs an excellent marketing communication strategy to ensure the delivery of adding value to the customers by each SMEs business.
Countries can check the performance of their logistics’ activities to determine their competitiveness in trade logistics. One way to check these performances is to analyze the country’s LPI value in detail which is released by the WB every two years. When calculating the LPI, six indicators (criteria) are taken into account. The weights (importance level) of these criteria are important for countries which would like to focus more on the most important criteria and move their ranking up in the LPI list. However the WB takes into account indicators (criteria) weights equally when calculating LPI values. In order to overcome this problem some studies have used subjective weighting methods and others have used objective weighting methods. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study is to integrate two weighting methods (subjective (SWARA) and objective (CRITIC)) in determining the weights of criteria in order to balance the two weighting methods. Unlike other studies in the literature this study combines two weighting methods. Additionally the PIV method, which is seldom used to address any MCDM problem, is used in this study and a new integrated MCDM model is introduced to literature. In this respect this study contributes to the literature.
This article is a multicriterial analysis of foreign direct investments in the West Region of Development of Romania, with a focus on German direct investments, taking into account the 4 component counties of Western Development Region: Arad, Caras-Severin, Hunedoara and Timis. The analysis investigates 2 reference years, 2010 and 2016, with statistical data retrieved from the National Trade Register Office, the National Commission for Strategy and Prognosis and www.listafirme.ro, to which are added the author’s own calculations. Conclusions are drawn for each of the considered criteria. For the German industry, Romania has affirmed itself in the last few years as being a direct investment market with a high strategic growth potential. Germany has become, both in exports and imports, one of Romania’s most important business partners. The business relationships between the companies which play an important role in the economic system of the two countries represent a useful tool for the developments of the Romanian-German trade flows. In the case of direct foreign investments, the enterprises show a consolidated presence in several regions of Romania. German investors have shown an increased interest for Romania especially since the end of the 90s of the last millenium. Internationally renowned companies from Germany, such as: Continental, Bosch, Daimler, INA Schaeffler and Kaufland have extended their production activity areas in Romania. The West Region of Development of Romania progressed in a special manner because it is a region with a great desire to collaborate with Germany both geographically, as well as cultural-historically.
The study aims to examine the perceived antecedents that influence the selection of shopping malls and determine the predictive nature of visit frequency that might lead shoppers to the intended purchase. Hence, the research question asked “to what extent the six determinants would most likely to affect shoppers frequency of visit to the malls and their purchase intention”. The method employed was positivist paradigm using questionnaires administering to young and adult respondents. A total of 200 usable samples were used for the SPSS analyses. Several primary statistical tools were used such as descriptive analyses, reliability test, factor analysis, multivariate and bivariate regressions. The results revealed that all constructs reliability were above Cronbach alpha 0.70 and both the convergent and discriminant validities were met via the exploratory factor analysis. The finding concluded that convenience, tenant variety, functional attributes, hedonic value and promotion are positively related to the frequency of visit. In addition, frequency of visit is also positively related to the purchase intention. The finding of this research provided both theoretical and practical implications.
The study investigates the variation in population ageing in Polish provinces in 2002, 2010 and 2017. Population ageing was assessed using the median age, proportion of elderly people, double ageing index, ageing index, and old-age dependency ratio. The authors took into account causes that explain changes occurring at the bottom and at the top of the population pyramid. By applying the hybrid approach combining multidimensional scaling with linear ordering (the two-step approach), the authors identified differences in the level of population ageing in a two-dimensional space. The paper applies a new method of automatic data collection from the Local Data Bank using the BDL package and the API interface (Application Programming Interface). The BDL API is a data-sharing service through webservice defining programming interfaces independent of the programming language, whereas the bdl package using this API enables webservice integration with the R statistical environment, eliminating the need for manual data extraction and enabling the automation of recurring activities.
According to Regional Innovation Scoreboard 2016, Romania’s regions, including the Bucharest-Ilfov region, are classified as modest innovators. This paper’s objective is to identify certain potential ways of economic growth of the Romanian regions through its innovation absorptive capacity and innovation development capacity, according to the AC/DC model of the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA), UK. Using the 2016 pillar scores of the Regional Competitiveness Index (RCI) - Innovation sub-index, we analyze their compatibility with the NESTA model and assess the potential of Romanian regions to absorb external innovation. The paper proposes a qualitative and quantitative approach based on empirical evidence. The poor performances of the Romanian regions regarding innovation, as they were analyzed in this paper, draw attention to Romania’s need to exploit innovation brought in from abroad. The main conclusion of our analysis is that Romania has failed to reach the absorption threshold of innovation that would allow it to accelerate the value-creating processes. The ability to innovate completes the ability to absorb. A detailed analysis of the causes of the reduced absorption capacity could also provide solutions for accelerating economic growth. We also formulate policy recommendations to increase Romania’s regional competitiveness through the development of innovation capacity.