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Analysis of Happiness in EU Countries Using the Multi-Model Classification based on Models of Symbolic Data

Abstract

The results of happiness analysis are presented in the form of a World Happiness Report that covers 156 countries and 17 different indicators. In the article model-based clustering ensemble is built to determine what selected European countries have similar patterns of happiness. The results are analyzed using multidimensional scaling and a decision tree to find out what factors determine cluster memberships. In the empirical part, three clusters were detected The first contains countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. They have the highest values for all the variables, except the negative affect. The second cluster contains seven countries: Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. This cluster is also the most homogeneous one. The third cluster contains eight countries: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.

Open access
Assessing the competitiveness of locations: A journey through the major theoretical insights

Abstract

The concept of competitiveness has been addressed by economic theorists and policy makers for several hundreds of years, with both groups trying to understand the drivers of economic prosperity and social welfare. This contribution does not aim to address all theoretical thoughts that may contribute to understanding the roots of the competitiveness of locations. The goal is to address the major useful theoretical contributions that permit to identify the main drivers of a territory’s competitiveness and therefore to assess the competitiveness of a specific location according to strong criteria. The first section presents the major contributions found in the classical and neo-classical theories. The second section and the third section concentrate on two majors schools providing significant thoughts on the competitiveness of locations: the Economic Geography (EG) School and the International Business (IB) School.

Open access
Competition and globalisation in economic sciences. Selected aspects

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to identify and assess the role of economic sciences in relation to competitiveness and globalisation, two basic concepts of the market economy. This role is to explain and interpret their essence but also to determine their potential practical usefulness, primarily in the context of economic policy development. The considerations mentioned in the article are, as a rule, of a general and universal nature and do not relate especially to any particular countries or groups of countries. The basic method employed in the study is a critical analysis of the subject literature. The paper consists of an introduction, three sections, and conclusions. Section 1 contains a basic discussion of the subject of economic sciences and describes their four features: cognitive productivity, practical usefulness, dismal nature and beauty. Section 2 presents the contribution of economic sciences to understanding and interpreting the phenomenon of competitiveness. Section 3 focuses on defining and elucidating the idea of globalisation and an examination of its most important aspects. The paper ends with eight conclusions formulated on the basis of this discussion.

Open access
The dimensions of national competitiveness: The empirical analysis based on The World Economic Forum’s data

Abstract

The aim of this research is to determine the minimum number of uncorrelated dimensions which can describe national competitiveness (NC). NC is thought of as the ability of a nation to provide a conducive environment for its firms to prosper. It is shown that the environment affects national productivity catalytically through the interactions with the production factors while itself remaining unchanged. Selected World Economic Forum’s indicators are used for determining the components of the environment. The Principal Component Analysis has revealed three orthogonal dimensions of NC. Countries are represented by the points in the three-dimensional space. The weighted Euclidean distance from the origin to the ith point is proposed as a novel measure of the ith country’s level of NC.

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Open access
Footnotes to organizational competitiveness

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to enhance our understanding of evolution of the concept of competitiveness: how it developed and changed over time. The intention is to review three theoretical and practical reasons that explains why it remains such an important and elusive concept in the same time. First, competitive advantage in particular area or activity will always coexist with relative competitive disadvantage of an organization. Second, organizations can attain competitive advantage in many different ways, also by luck, and it is very difficult empirically to differentiate one from another. Third, many of the complications in studies of organizational competitiveness are results of growing multidimensionality, complexity and fuzziness of organization-environment relationships.

Open access
Forecasting the Sales of Console Games for the Italian Market

Abstract

In videogames industry, time series analysis can be very useful in determining the general evolution and behaviour of the market dynamics. These methods are applicable to any time series forecasting problem, regardless of the application sector. This article discusses time series approaches to forecast the sales of console games for the Italian market. In particular two univariate techniques were evaluated, exponential smoothing and the SARIMA technique. The aim is to exploit the capabilities of these statistical methods in order to have a comparison of the results and to choose the most accurate model through an ex-post evaluation. Using monthly time-series data from November 2005 to September 2017, the selection of the most suitable model was indicated by the smallest value of the measures of accuracy (MAPE, sMAPE, RMSE) for the out-of-sample observations regarding the period October 2017-September 2018. The implementation of the models was done using Forecast PRO and Gretl. The time series involved is related to the sales regarding the first party manufacturers of consoles and handhelds (Microsoft, Sony and Nintendo).

Open access
Governance and competitiveness in global value chains: A comparative study in the automobile and textile industries

Abstract

In this paper the configuration of the value chains in the automobile and the textile industries building on a theoretical review of the value chain concept, its different typologies and governance models are analised. At the empirical level these chains are classified according to the most relevant participating actors, their interrelations and their methods of upgrading their competitiveness. In both chains a firm-level analysis of their quantitative indicators for competitiveness was carried out.

Regarding the automobile industry assemblers generate significant agglomeration economies by attracting international suppliers. The modular production system of the sector generates great flexibility for the manufacturer but it also represents important opportunities for supplier companies aiming to improve their competitive position in these chains. As for the textile industry, our paper shows the clear leadership of the large distribution chains which have radically changed the sector transforming it into an industry driven by the buyers or distributors. Results indicate that the distribution companies are those that have the potential to generate greater added value when these companies have created integrated structures at the end of the chain.

Open access
Graphical Tools of Discrete Longitudinal Data Presentation in R

Abstract

Good graphical presentation of data is useful during the whole analysis process from the first glimpse into the data to the model fitting and presentation of results. The most popular way of longitudinal data presentation are separate (for each wave, in cross-sectional dimension) comparisons of figures. However, plotting the data over time is useful in suggesting appropriate modeling techniques to deal with the heterogeneity observed in the trajectories. The main aim of this paper is to present the changing perceptions of the financial situation in Poland using different graphical tools for the heterogonous discrete longitudinal data sets and present demographics features for those changes. We will focus on the most important features of the categorical longitudinal data – category sequences and their graphical presentation. We aim to characterize the analyzed sequences on the basis of unidimensional indicators and composite complexity measures, as well as using mainly TraMineR [Gabadinho et al. 2017] package of R.

Open access