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Abstract

Analyzing the range of problems that arise from the correlation between the content and the form of a performance, we conclude that most of them are generated by a lack of knowledge and the wrong attitude to the theatrical methodology inherited from the great reformer of the stage - K.Stanislavsky, especially to his latest discovery - the method of active analysis. It uses the method of physical actions as a practical application tool and includes, both theoretically and practically, the whole process of converting a play on the stage, thus helping us find its stage equivalent in an organic way.

It is totally wrong to confuse a method that is so useful in the stage creation process, which is a well-proven technique and a way of conversion, with a variety of new theatrical aesthetics. Until now, except for the empirical mode of creation, there has been only one way of distinguishing a unique and an appropriate form that best reflects the content of a dramatic work – this is the method of active analysis.

This method implies the rational and emotional knowledge of the author’s idea in his work, the knowledge of the thought that goes through every scene and every phrase in it, as well as the emotional attitude generated by this thought towards the events and the characters.

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Abstract

Cloud Opera or The Dido Problem (Vaba Lava, Tallinn, Feb-Mar 2019) is a theatrical performance investigating, through artistic means, the human condition in the datafied world. The play was created in collaboration between Vaba Lava theatre and Tallinn University’s Centre of Excellence in Media Innovation and Digital Culture (MEDIT). In terms of its representations, the play combined references to man-made data ‘clouds’ with knowledge on atmospheric clouds and suggested that the former are just as unpredictable and uncontrollable as the latter. In this article, Liina Keevallik, the author and the scenographer of the performance together with Indrek Ibrus, a media researcher, discuss the uses of the media archaeological approach both in artistic practice and in creating “Cloud Opera”. We also discuss what media archaeological “findings” we could glean from the scenic elements of the play.

Abstract

This paper is an exploratory study to understand the content marketing practices in Estonia, a current trend that ties together journalism, communications, and advertising. Estonia is a small market where the ‘guilds’ of journalists and PR professionals are rather intertwined. Trends occurring here may provide suggestions for larger markets and future developments. A qualitative study was conducted in Spring 2018. The objective of the study was to describe the problems and potential complications arising from the reorganization of traditional areas of activity of agents operating in the field of the communications industry – specifically in the context of content marketing, and from the viewpoint of representatives of PR agencies. The article begins with putting the phenomenon of content marketing into a wider societal context – and specifically that of the Estonian media ecosystem. The possible influences of content marketing on such important realms, and such defining factors as trust (Luhmann 2000), social capital (Bourdieu 1995) the integrity, independence, and the interactions between the different fields (ibid) are discussed. The results of the survey indicate that the field of public relations is changing as a result of the forces from the other neighbouring fields, that of journalism and advertising. The paper points out that the issue of trust and trustworthiness and the origins of ‘the media’ need to be addressed in order to provide integrity and transparency.

Abstract

What could we possibly mean by the expression “composition role”? To this question we will try to find an answer as comprehensive as possible. Are we talking only about those “character roles” mentioned by Stanislavsky? This reference can be considered, since all those character roles require stage composition, the way Stanislavsky described his own acting experiences. But is this the only landmark? Should we label as composition roles only the characters that demand text-triggered stage composition? Indeed, there are characters that assume, within their construction, elements that do not belong to the actor as an individual. But are these the only cases when the term applies?

The composition role is therefore not limited to only a few obvious milestones identified in the text. On a closer look, some characters may require a stage composition based on external elements, even if this problem is not apparent. Yet we must not misunderstand things and come to the conclusion that all roles, following a deep psychological analysis, become composition roles. If we agree that the construction of a character involves many elements pertaining to externalization, we must consider the cases where such suggestions originate from the director. Some directors claim scenic effects from the actors, sometimes contradicting the natural line of the character created by the author, maybe even completely modifying its construction. How reprehensible, however, is the acting effect? Has it only arisen from a desire to simulate virtuosity?

The term “effect” in composition can be accepted in the sense of the element helping to achieve the contrasts indispensable to the stage creation, about which Michael Chekhov speaks in To the Actor. He confers to it a broader acceptance.

Solutions not related to elementary normality can give the actor an unbearable sense of awkwardness, inevitably leading to effort. This effort will not go unnoticed by the spectator. And the spectator, almost always without hesitation, gives a negative verdict to such a performance.

And yet, visible manifestations that seem to be chaotic can be lived from the inside, which averts effort in interpretation and artificiality. The actor can avoid some clumsiness in emotions, clumsiness that is spoken about by Dario Fo, among others.

Abstract

The Republic of Estonia celebrated the 100th anniversary of its independence on February 24, 2018. The celebration marked a significant milestone for Estonians and, as a way of recognizing this, the Estonian government implemented different marketing and participatory strategies for involving individuals and organizations to take part in the celebration. As such, individuals and organizations were invited to create special gifts for Estonia and its citizens. These gifts could be in the form of tangible presents or in the form of special events and cultural programs. The official gifts were marked by the official Estonia 100 (in the Estonian language: EV100) logo. One such gift to the Estonian population were a number of audiovisual productions that were enabled through special funding from the Estonian government, managed by the Estonian Film Institute. These productions included, besides 40 short documentaries about young Estonian inventors, one animation, six feature films, two documentaries and a TV drama series (EV100 2019a).1 This paper reports a study that explored the impact of the Estonia 100 brand on the production, marketing and consumption of these films and the TV series.

Abstract

One of the issues theatre must deal with when approaching the topic of genocide is representation. How can theatre, an art of mimesis, represent extreme violence, absolute evil? What can be shown, so as to honour the memory of the victims and at the same time convey the idea of radical evil? At the turn of the 21st century, two playwrights, Enzo Cormann (France) and Juan Mayorga (Spain) approached the issue of the Holocaust through memory. In Toujours l’orage [Always the Storm](1997) and respectively Himmelweg [Way to heaven] (2002) the protagonists revisit, after several decades, the traumatic events of 1944, when they witnessed or participated in the perversion of life and theatre by the Nazi. This paper will analyse the modalities of the memorial mechanism, among which the metatheatrical devices facilitating the representation of the traumatic event.

Abstract

The need to re-structure established media systems needs to be acknowledged. In a situation where new services will be provided by different actors of the digital economy, the role of public service media (PSM) requires attention. If, generally, PSM are under pressure in Europe, the situation in small national markets is even more complicated. PSM are under pressure and also need to find ways to reformulate their role in society and culture. Broad discussions and new agreements between politicians, citizens and the media industry are necessary to change this situation. We will approach the question of whether a specific gap still exists in the media market that can be filled by PSM? The article will seek these answers based on various survey data and collected statistics in Estonia.

Abstract

Ever since the prehistoric age, people have been endowing some objects with symbolic status and, by animating them, they have turned them into means of communicating profound truths about man and life. The need to communicate led to conceiving a system of representation through which exterior forms of expression were created and assumed, a particular way of making the invisible visible.