The article deals with selected aspects of the economic structure and functions of the largest villages in Poland. The main aim of the study is to investigate the diversity and changes that can be observed to have happened since before the fall of Communism in Poland. Large villages with populations exceeding 5,000 inhabitants are located in the same part of the rural–urban continuum as small towns, including many poviat (1) seats. For this reason, they are an interesting comparative category of settlement units. The study was based on a source database from the end of the last century and on contemporary public data from the REGON database. The comparison is based not only on various data, but also uses various research methodologies.
Research concerning studentification is growing in importance. The supply of private student accommodation forms part of the wider urban process of studentification which documents changes in the social, economic and cultural fabric of cities. Although scholarly interest concerning the supply of private student accommodation has enjoyed sustained interest in the global North, only limited work is available surrounding the supply and demand for private student accommodation in global South urban centres. In South Africa there has been growing recognition of the impact of the studentification that has accompanied the massification of tertiary education in the post-apartheid period. Using interviews with key stakeholders, suppliers of student accommodation, as well as focus groups with students, this paper explores the supply of houses in multiple occupation and students’ perspectives on such properties in Johannesburg, South Africa. One distinctive influence upon the studentification process in South Africa is the impact of the national government funding system which was restructured in order to support the tertiary education of students from previously disadvantaged communities.
The present research aims to find out whether population displacement due to river bank erosion has any impact on education of the erosion victims of the developing countries or not. To fulfil the objective of the study, 19 erosion affected study units were selected along the banks of the Ganga-Bhagirathi river in the Jangipur sub-division of Murshidabad district, West Bengal. Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed using SPSS software. The result of the study shows that frequency of population displacement due to bank erosion and percentage of child labour are positively and significantly correlated (r = 0.51). A low mean year of schooling has been observed in almost all selected study units. The result of multiple linear regression analysis shows that river bank erosion has an adverse impact on the education of the people living along the river banks.
Many cities in developing countries are experiencing urbanization characterised by the continu-ous proliferation of informal settlements. In the City of Lusaka over 70 percent of residents live in informal settlements. The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of how inclusive land administration is in the City of Lusaka using the perspective of good governance principles. The sample comprised 10 key informants purposively selected from government institutions/ civil society organisations and 60 respondents conveniently drawn from informal settlements. The findings were analysed thematically and using descriptive statistics. The findings show that there is need to create policies and legislation that assists in developing viable, liveable and inclusive townships. Most indicators of the five good governance principles recorded negative responses of at least 60 per cent. Formal urban land development arrangements in the city have not been able to cope with the demands of the majority of urban residents. The study suggests that land and housing policies be revised to serve a broader purpose beyond the provision of shelter in order to suit the dynamic and contemporary needs of specific societies. Further re-search is needed on tenure responsive land use planning in order to understand existing commu-nity dynamics (economic and social support networks) and implement practical changes for tackling informality if Zambian cities and communities are to be sustainable and resilient.
Weiming Tong CDFMR, Liyuan Zhu CDFMR and Kevin Lo CDFMR
Large-scale rural land appropriation and displacement, driven by the unprecedented urban growth currently experienced in China, has created millions of land-lost peasants who live in the city but remain culturally, socially and institutionally rural. The situation has attracted growing attention in the literature because of its negative social impact, but relatively few studies have addressed how land-lost farmers adapt to urban ways of life and what factors influence their life satisfaction. In this paper, we investigate the predictors of livelihood adaptation and life satisfaction of land-lost farmers from a land appropriation case in the city of Changchun, Northeast China. The results show that, five years after the appropriation, livelihood adaptation remained very difficult and life satisfaction was poor among the resettlers. Furthermore, marginalised groups, such as those who were older, less educated and from smaller families, and those with lower pre-displacement income were less likely to have a higher income level after resettlement, resulting in a lower level of life satisfaction. Women also had lower life satisfaction than men. The study highlights an urgent need to improve China’s unjust land appropriation policy with a particular focus on attending to the needs of marginalised groups.
Marzieh Reisi CDFMR, Mozhgan Ahmadi Nadoushan CDFMR and Lu Aye CDFMR
Walking is a more sustainable transport mode, and governments around the world are trying to deliver highly walkable areas to their people. Due to its importance, walkability has been a research topic in recent years. Vast empirical studies have reported evidence related to the influence of built environment on walking as a major physical activity. Considering the recent literature, this study developed a framework to quantify walkability by applying a set of indicators related to built environment. The indicators were normalised, weighted and integrated into an overall walkability index. The research was conducted on Chaharbagh Street, which is a major and ancient street in the Isfahan metropolitan area, Iran. The proposed framework would be helpful in investigations of whether a specific area is an appropriate option for a car-free plan based on its built environment features. The outcome of the study could be applied to understand issues related to pedestrian infrastructure and to propose corrective actions.
Hélder Da Silva Lopes CDFMR, Paula Remoaldo CDFMR and Vítor Ribeiro CDFMR
The recognition of the role of tourism planners in seeking to contribute to local residents’ well-being by mitigating the potential costs of tourism development has been given more attention in the last decades. Several studies on the perception of positive or negative impacts, based on sustainability (namely the three pillars: economic, sociocultural and environmental) have been developed. However, the studies have been somewhat limited in terms of approaches, namely with respect to the contribution and participation of stakeholders. In this study, we attempted to use a bidirectional analysis of involvement and tourism knowledge to segment the residents and analyse their perception of the impacts. A total of 373 valid surveys were applied in a rural mountainous municipality (Boticas) during 2015 and 2016. In this municipality, tourism (activity) is an emergent activity. The results show that more informed and more involved residents have more positive perceptions of tourism than other groups, while less informed and less involved residents have more negative perceptions of it. The study contributes to increasing the knowledge about residents’ perceptions of tourism, adding the aspects of involvement, especially in rural areas. This type of proposal can be applied to any destination to help manage residents’ opinions and, consequently, their support of tourism development.
Scientists, experts, and politicians have differing views on polarisation and levelling in the development of regions. Many researchers consider polarisation to be an objective process that benefits the country and the region because labour productivity is higher in larger centres. As for social differences, many states (and the European Union as an organisation) redistribute part of their revenue from more prosperous regions to poorer ones using regional budget policies. The article provides useful data on the regional specificity of polarisation and levelling in Russia at macro-, meso-, and microregional levels based on statistical, economic and cartographic analysis. The article shows that in Russia the polarisation of the economy and population distribution strongly prevails over the levelling of regional differences.
The concept of global cities and the importance of transnationalisation processes in their formation are widely acknowledged. However, the debate surrounding global city identification continues. The study introduces a new approach to evaluating global cities by primarily looking at them as locales for foreign multinational corporations. By analysing the location decisions made by foreign TNCs in the Forbes 2000 rankings, two things become apparent: the “nodality” of US global cities and their hierarchical pattern. Our findings show the key role that Alpha global cities play in attracting and fostering international business. We identify five uneven groups of cities. These groups are defined in accordance with our methodology and are as follows: the New York city-hegemon, leading cities, heavyweight cities, middleweight cities and outsider cities. The article specifies several key factors determining a city’s attractiveness to foreign corporations: its geo-economical power, functional specialisation, location, historical and cultural ties, and position on different sectoral markets.
David Bole CDFMR, Jani Kozina CDFMR and Jernej Tiran CDFMR
The aim of this paper is to make a typology of industrial towns according to their economic performance and to establish place-specific local factors influencing the typology and their territorial distribution. We collected 15 indicators of economic performance for 23 small industrial towns in Slovenia, and with the method of Principle Component Analysis with k-means clustering made a typology of small industrial towns. The results show a great variety of small industrial towns, with many of them having a strong economic performance. In the discussion, we relate the findings to the overall transformation of industry in the post-socialist context, to re-industrialisation tendencies and to place-specific factors such as peripherality and specific historical events (polycentric policies). We conclude with the call to continue studying small industrial towns through the prism of opportunities and to address their weaknesses and maximise their place-specific strengths.