The world energy demand has become higher with the growing population, which has translated into an increase in emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. For this reason, CO2 capture and storage has been undertaken to purify the atmosphere. For storing this CO2, it is necessary to have wells to inject it (deeper than 800 m); moreover, these wells need to have stability over time, and one of the stability aspects is the protection of steel against corrosion. Considering this aspect, the most common steels (focussed on American Petroleum Institute [API] steels) that can be used in an injector well were studied. The best performance was obtained using a high alloy content of Cr and Ni. Furthermore, the most important parameter analysed when corrosion is studied is the test time, which was modelled to stabilise the corrosion rates. The experiments were undertaken after a general review of different studies that investigated the corrosion of steel when in contact with CO2 in the vapour phase and under supercritical conditions.
Heavy mineral component of 13 samples from the Lokoja and Patti Formations, Bida Basin have been studied for their textural characteristics, compositional abundance, maturity and provenance determinations. The suite of heavy minerals encountered is classified as opaque and non-opaque constituents. The non-opaque components include zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet, staurolite, epidote, kyanite, titanite, lawsonite, cassiterite, sillimanite, hornblende, hypersthene and andalu-site. The assemblage is generally dominated by zircon and tourmaline in the two formations. The constituent heavy minerals identified are dominated by ultra-stable and stable classes, whereas the ZTR indices indicate mineralogical immaturity coupled with textural immaturity of the constituent grains. This suggests the possible dominance of chemical weathering of the source rock. The suites of minerals recovered have been linked to both metamorphic and non-metamorphic crystalline rock origins.
The paper describes the problem of conversion of heights to the European Vertical Reference Frame 2007 for Poland (PL-EVRF2007-NH). The subject of the study is height data, and especially the detailed vertical reference network. The aim of the article is to present an alternative method of conversion to the one recommended by the Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. The proposed approach is characterised by a low implementation cost while maintaining the required accuracy.
The publication is illustrated by the case of Kętrzyn district (in the north-east part of Poland). The local reference network was converted from Kronstad’60 to PL-EVRF2007-NH in 2017.
The article discusses a method applied for combining the results of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and 75-year old triangulation measurements to estimate the crustal movements in central western Bulgaria region. It was examined for joint analysis based on the results of GNSS with angular measurements of the first order triangulation network in Bulgaria during the period 1923–1930 year. As a result of the processing of GNSS and angular measurements, horizontal velocities of 15 points, strain rates, and rotation rates have been obtained. The results show dominating N–S extension at a rate of 1–2 mm/y and the deformation is not uniformly distributed over the studied area. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using old angular measurement of first-order triangulation points, together with GNSS data, to obtain estimates of the horizontal crustal movements.
The study area is focused on the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench, North Pacific Ocean. This region is geologically complex, notable for the lithosphere activity, tectonic plates subduction and active volcanism. The submarine geomorphology is complicated through terraces, slopes, seamounts and erosional processes. Understanding geomorphic features of such a region requires precise modelling and effective visualization of the high-resolution data sets. Therefore, current research presents a Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) based algorithm proposing a solution for effective data processing and precise mapping: iterative module-based scripting for the automated digitizing and modelling. Methodology consists of the following steps: topographic mapping of the raster grids, marine gravity and geoid; semi-automatic digitizing of the orthogonal cross-section profiles; modelling geomorphic trends of the gradient slopes; computing raster surfaces from the xyz data sets by modules nearneighbor and XYZ2grd. Several types of the cartographic projections were used: oblique Mercator, Mercator cylindrical, conic equal-area Albers, conic equidistant. The cross-section geomorphic profiles in a perpendicular direction across the two selected segments of the trench were automatically digitized. Developed algorithm of the semi-automated digitizing of the profiles enabled to visualize gradients of the slope steepness of the trench. The data were then modelled to show gradient variations in its two segments. The results of the comparative geomorphic analysis of northern and southern transects revealed variations in different parts of the trench. Presented research provided more quantitative insights into the structure and settings of the submarine landforms of the hadal trench that still remains a question for the marine geology. The research demonstrated the effectiveness of the GMT: a variety of modules, approaches and tools that can be used to produce high-quality mapping and graphics. The GMT listings are provided for repeatability.
We present a method of approximation of a deformation field based on the local affine transformations constructed based on n nearest neighbors with respect to points of adopted grid. The local affine transformations are weighted by means of inverse distance squared between each grid point and observed points (nearest neighbors). This work uses a deformation gradient, although it is possible to use a displacement gradient instead – the two approaches are equivalent. To decompose the deformation gradient into components related to rigid motions (rotations, translations are excluded from the deformation gradient through differentiation process) and deformations, we used a polar decomposition and decomposition into a sum of symmetric and an anti-symmetric matrices (tensors). We discuss the results from both decompositions. Calibration of a local affine transformations model (i.e., number of nearest neighbors) is performed on observed points and is carried out in a cross-validation procedure. Verification of the method was conducted on simulated data-grids subjected to known (functionally generated) deformations, hence, known in every point of a study area.
Intensified investment processes in construction have resulted in increased interest in the methods of efficient detection, verification and location of underground utility networks. In addition to the well-known pipe and cable locating equipment, which has increased its efficiency and reliability through the development of technologies, GPRs are becoming more and more popular.
This publication presents the results of the experimental research carried out with the use of GPRs manufactured by two different companies as well as the results of the verification of underground utilities in real conditions. The GPRs have worked in the mode of the real-time location of their own position using the GNSS system or robotic total stations.
The GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) surveys performed on a test field, consisting of 9 pipes with a known position, were aimed at assessing the accuracy of their identification on echograms. The utility line location errors were determined using three different combinations between the GPR and the locating instrument. It allowed the evaluation of the possibility of using these solutions for detection, verification and location of underground utility networks in the light of the Polish legal regulations and the British specification PAS 128.
The verification in real conditions was carried out in a typical urban space, characterised by an intense occurrence of underground utilities, that is, sewage systems, gas pipelines and power cables. It was based on the GESUT database captured from the county geodetic and cartographic documentation centre. The results of the visual analysis of the materials captured with the help of two measurement systems were described in detail, however, the verification was carried out only for one set of data. The authors have presented the procedure of processing echograms and detecting the location of pipeline axes based on their vectorisation. The authors of this research paper have performed a numerical analysis of the compliance of the profiles of utility lines with the information from the base map for two variants of the GPR data integration with the coordinates. The authors of this research paper have also presented an alternative concept of capturing the profile of a utility line in the field based on the processing of GPR data in 3D – the so-called C-scan. The conclusions summarise the possible factors affecting the surveying results and the methods of eliminating sources of errors, both for the GPR and geodetic data.
The Zletovo is lead–zinc (Pb–Zn) deposit, adjacent to the Plavica volcanic centre (R. Macedonia) with high-sulphidation and porphyry mineralisation. The analysis of fluid inclusions showed homogenisation temperatures in the range 335–145°C, which reflects phases of pulsation of hydrothermal solutions and defined into four groups from the lowest to the highest temperatures. The frequency of the homogenisation temperatures ranged from 265 to 125°C and with the most dominant from 245 to 225°C, from 225 to 205°C and from 145 to 125°C. Also, it was confirmed that hydrothermal ore-bearing solutions were defined as NaCl-type with range from 4.4 to 8.6 wt% NaCl equivalent. The latest stage salinities ranged from 3 to 12 wt% NaCl equivalent, where those from 10 to 12 wt% and from 6 to 8 wt% NaCl equivalent, prevailed. This suggests that hydrothermal solutions within analysed quartz grains were at final mineralizing phase. Density of fluid inclusions ranged from 0.7 to 0.95g/cm3. Calculated pressures and paleo-depths of mineralisation ranged from 14 to 130 bar and from 0.6 to 0.8 km.
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used for delineating significant subsurface hydrogeological features for sustainable groundwater development in Etioro-Akoko area, Southwestern Nigeria. This study was necessitated by challenges posed on groundwater supplies from wells and boreholes in Etioro-Akoko and the neighbouring fast growing towns and villages. Field data were acquired over the area with ABEM Lund Resistivity Imaging System and were subsequently processed and inverted through RES2DINVx64 software. Results showed four distinct subsurface layers: topsoil, weathered layer, fractured bedrock and fresh bedrock (basal unit). Localised bedrock depressions occasioned by fracturing and deep weathering of less stable bedrock minerals were delineated with resistivity and thickness values ranging from 50 to 650 Ωm and 12 to ---gt--- 25 m, respectively. The localised depressions mirrored uneven bedrock topography and served as the preferential groundwater storage and hydrogeological zones in the area. The two hydrogeological zones significant for groundwater development included overburden-dependent aquifers and fractured dependent bedrock aquifers. It was, therefore, concluded that groundwater storage potential was depended on hydrogeological zones particularly at major localised bedrock depressions where fractures and groundwater recharges/discharges were evident. Wells and boreholes were proposed at bedrock depressions with thickness value not less than 12 and ---gt--- 25 m, respectively, for enhanced groundwater sustainability and quality assurance in the area.