Two field trials were carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin in the 2012 and 2014 planting seasons to find out the effeciency of Trichoderma harzianum as a bio-control agent in controlling root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in two pepper varieties (F1 Nikita and Gianfranco Fuscello). A 2 × 2 factorial design fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used with 5 replications. The T. harzianum filtrate significantly increased plant height, number of leaves, and yield. The control showed higher root galling and soil nematode population. Varietal differences showed that F1 Nikita performed significantly better than G. Fuscello. The combination of Trichoderma and F1 Nikita appears effective for managing root-knot nematodes.
Modinah A.O. Abdul Raheem, Kamaldeen O. Ajayi and Olanrewaju A. Awoyemi
This paper assessed in-vehicle and ambient pollution levels from vehicles along Ilorin-Lagos highway covering three distinct 3-hour periods (morning, afternoon and evening) of the day (from 7.30 am to 6.30 pm) along with reported health challenges at six (6) settlements (SP1-SP6) that covered four (4) states. In the case of ambient pollution, Gilair-3 air sampler (GAS) was used to measure sulphur (iv) oxide, (SO2) while ALTAIR 5x Multi-gas Detector (AMD) was used to measure both carbon (ii) oxide, (CO) and sulphur (iv) oxide, (SO2) for all scenarios. Vehicular volume was manually conducted to determine the number of vehicles. Questionnaire was used to assess information on the health challenges faced by the commuters. The concentrations of SO2 ranged from 0.142 - 0.550 ppm (ambient) and 0.037 - 0.097 ppm (in vehicle) using AMD and GAS respectively while CO concentration was between 2.289 - 18.055 ppm using AMD. The results for the in- vehicular pollution revealed that the concentration levels obtained for CO and SO2 inside the vehicles were 6.32 ppm and 0.126 ppm under opened-window condition and 9.53 ppm and 0.274 ppm under closed-window condition respectively (without air condition). The SO2 concentrations obtained from both ambient and in-vehicle were found to be much higher when compared with the FEPA standards; SO2 (0.01 – 0.1 ppm), USEPA standards; SO2 (0.075 ppm) while the CO level obtained from in-vehicle under the two scenarios (opened and closed windows) were below the limit of NESREA standards (10 – 20 ppm) and USEPA standards (35 ppm). Having noticed that these pollutants act under different environmental conditions, the work established statistical evidence that traffic volume affected the pollutants concentrations at most of the sampling points and that the higher the traffic, the higher the emissions and the more the risk of health challenges.
Zsolt Székely-Varga, Timea Hitter Buru, Alex-Peter Cotoz, Roxana Alexandra Sabo and Maria Cantor
This paper presents the behaviour of five hyacinth varieties: ‘City of Haarlem’, ‘Blue Jacket’, ‘Miss Saigon’, ‘Jan Boss’, and ‘Double Prince of Love’ in forced culture under the influence of different culture substrates. For this purpose, the following parameters were monitored concerning the main characteristics: number of flowers from inflorescence, length of stem flower, earliness of flowering period, and the flowers’ blooming period. The results of this work show that in culture substrate garden soil and sand (1:1) the best results were obtained regarding the length of the floral stem, number of flowers from inflorescence, and flowering period, and less favourable results were obtained for bloom precocity.
Issam Bouchahdane, Mohamed Boukhemza, Karim Souttou and Arezki Derridj
Knowledge and study of breeding birds’ biology is essential to understand the dynamic, assess productivity and identify threats. The population of booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) was studied during three consecutive breeding seasons (2013−2015) in the Chettabah forest. Each year, arrivals of Booted eagles are recorded during March (15 individuals in 2013, 12 in 2014 and 11 in 2015). For the three years of study, the mean breeding pair’s density was 1.23 ± 0.153/km2, incubation period ranged from 33 to 38 days, whilst the frequency distribution of clutch size was 67.6% for 2 eggs, 27% for 1 and 5.4% for 3. Amongst the 63 eggs monitored, 55 hatched. No significant variation in hatching rate was observed during the 3 years (90% in 2013, 76.19% in 2014 and 84% in 2015). The comparison of breeding parameters with those reported in Spain showed a noticeable similarity. Further investigations should be conducted to improve the provision of information to support sound management interventions of this North African population.
Béla Biró-Janka, Imre-István Nyárádi, Marcel Matei Duda, Beáta Demeter and Andrea Nagygyörgy
During the study, the seeds of seven sweet basil cultivars were treated with 100 ppm solutions of gibberellic acid or ascorbic acid prior to a 14-day germination experiment. Values of the first day of germination, germination energy, germinability, mean time and rate of germination, and uncertainty and synchrony of germination were calculated. The results show that both of the substances altered the measured parameters, priming with gibberellic acid proving to be a more effective way to enhance the germination of basil seeds. Also, they revealed major differences among the germination parameters of the examined cultivars.
Snowbed vegetation is one of the most sensitive alpine vegetation type to the climate change, because shortened period of snow cover has essential impact on the snowbed environment. We focus on its changes in the Western Tatras, which is a part of the Western Carpathians (Slovakia). The assessment of changes in snowbed vegetation is based on the method of pair comparison. In 2016–2018, we resampled 21 historical phytocoenological relevés of Festucion picturatae and Salicion herbaceae alliances from 1974 and 1976. Historical data include 45 species, while recent data include 50 species. We observed a decrease in the frequency of species characteristic for snowbeds and, on the other hand, an increase in that for strong competitors, especially grasses and small shrubs from adjacent habitats. According to Ellenberg’s ecological indices, there is some increase in temperature and decrease in light ecological factors in snowbed habitats. In S. herbaceae data, a statistically significant increase in the average species number was observed with new species that penetrated from the adjacent habitats. Changes in species composition between historical and recent data are confirmed by Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) ordination diagram. Linear mixed-effect models showed big variability in factors that have impact on phytodiversity; nevertheless, temperature is the most significant factor.
Timea Hitter Buru, Erzsébet Buta, Gertrud Bucur and Maria Cantor
Nature, childhood, and ecopsychology can to be connected in the landscape of a schoolyard. The landscape architecture of the natural environments serves as a wide-open green space for outdoor activities, creating imaginative and inventive urban environmental layouts and connecting natural elements. School-based green experience, either indoor or outdoor, can be a physical and mental activity for children. In the case of individuals, it makes` easy to access a natural, green environment and to be actively involved in a natural setting, developing either social and/or cognitive functions and improving concentration and creativity. Therapeutic horticulture activity, such as planting indoor plants, can be a good experience for developing team work, the proprioceptive (kinase) receptors, affectivity, socialization, permanent care, and responsibility. The potential benefits of ornamental plants for children involved in public education include spending time in outdoor spaces, fresh air and sunshine, experiencing a sense of control, and being exposed to sensory stimulations. Physical and psychological education based on therapeutic horticulture activities in Romanian schools, such as planting and green care, can provide important opportunities for children to develop their attachment to nature, offering sustainable education solutions to an active part of the natural environment.
László Miklós, Anna Špinerová and Monika Offertálerová
Nowadays, changes in environment have become characteristic of notorious mainstream political topics, with a corresponding moral, political, and financial support. The presented article deals with the landscape-ecological scientific aspects of climatic changes and of ecosystem services. The research of both phenomena is based on the complex investigation of the geosystem and, as a second step, on the scientifically-based interpretation of the obtained results. The problem resides in the question concerning the capability of scientific institutions and teams to deal with these topics with scientific profoundness, taking into account intensive public pressure and high expectations.
Studies reveal that not up to 50% of earthworm species have been described in the world and the understanding of earthworm diversity is finite in most countries including Nigeria. The study was aimed at evaluating the diversity of earthworms and environmental factors affecting their abundance. Earthworms were collected from three (3) different sampling locations in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Descriptive statistics and estimation of species abundance, dominance and diversity were used to analyze the data obtained from the study. From the study, four (4) species of earthworms were identified and recorded from the three sampling locations. Eudrilus eugeniae (54.9%) was the most abundant species followed by Hyperidrilus africanus (20.3%), Libyodrilus violaceous (19.6%) and Alma millsoni (6.3%) with the least abundant species. The result of the diversity indices showed Science village (1.13) as the most diverse habitat followed by Emelda hostel (0.86) and Boys’ hostel (0.84) with the least diversity of species. Soil pH ranged from 2.25 to 4.06 and total organic matter ranged from 14.10 to 16.36%. Soil temperature was uniform with an average value of 27°C for the three sampling locations. The soil moisture content ranged from 11.19 to 14.12%. The conductivity recorded the lowest value (25.60μS/cm) in Emelda Hostel and highest value (111.8 μS/cm) in Science village. The study provided understanding into the patterns of earthworm populations in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka and the need for the conservation of earthworm diversity. Better understanding about habitat and living conditions of earthworms is required to provide suitable and enhanced production of vermicompost in different geographic conditions.
Anna Rita Tóth, Tímea Rubóczki and Mária Takácsné Hájos
Recently, industrial tomato production in Hungary shows an increasing tendency after a weak processing period. However, to maintain the cultivation profitable, the use of proper technology and genotype is indispensable.
In the experiment, five hybrids and one variety were evaluated in a plot experiment design on open field. The main objective was to evaluate the fruit quality of different genotypes and to determine the suitability for mechanical harvest.
According to the results, Heinz 1015 F1 and Heinz 9478 F1 had the best fruit quality for industrial processing.
Nowadays, the use of hybrids with good adaptability and resistance properties is important for a profitable production.