This paper analyses the media practices of older adults from Mureş County (village and small town). The first part of this paper examines the integration of digital media into current society and everyday life along with the characteristics of the knowledge and skill acquisition related to digital media. The second half, grounded on empirical qualitative data, offers insight into the digital media practices of older people in Mureş County, Romania, as well as into their opportunities and the contexts regarding the knowledge and skill acquisition necessary for the use of digital media. The paper is based on an exploratory qualitative research aimed at offering insight into the Romanian situation, identifying the obstacles to the digital media use of the older people living in rural areas, and laying the groundwork for a more extended study.
We live in a networked world with a fast pace of digitalization, and yet about half of the humanity is still offline (United Nations, 2018). Information and communication technologies are playing a key role in our public and private lives, both during work- and playtime. No wonder that social inequalities are increasingly reflected as digital inequalities in terms of infrastructural access, skills, and cultural practices online: those left behind can hardly keep up. The present research note brings together theoretical and practical resources related to digital inclusion issues globally, with local examples from Romania, where digital naïves – the poor, the rural, the elderly, the disabled, and the less educated – are more at risk.1
While in our accelerated world everything seems to change, basic values are here to stay. I believe one such aspect is education and training. Although our educational system is built on a relatively permanent basis, instructional methodology on the whole has undergone substantial changes despite that all of the educational system has preserved its role in transmitting, presenting, and preserving knowledge. Since in our fast 21st-century world myriads of facts and fake or questionable information is available, students require new knowledge along with new and perhaps different answers. We believe that education, due to its ability to provide scientifically sound answers to the respective challenges, is vital today. Recent paradigm shifts have led to fundamental alterations in the form of information and knowledge acquisition supported by modern, state-ofthe-art ICT-based methodological solutions and learning environments. The study focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of such learning support schemes or solutions.
Objectives: On social media, or in the world of the so-called like economy, highly targeted advertising has become reality: whereas previously advertisers only suspected the whereabouts of their customers, now they know it exactly based on well-defined parameters. Likes have become a new standard of value. With the increased popularity of Like buttons, influencer marketing and content marketing have also gained in importance. This paper aims to explore the persuasion strategies used by visual content marketing as a tool of visual rhetoric. Methodology: After reviewing the relevant literature, the paper presents a case study from the field of wine communication: using the methodology of content analysis and a qualitative approach, it examines the visual and verbal characteristics of 100 Instagram posts of Hungarian wineries. The examination focused on content from a semiotic aspect, complementary verbal elements (captions, hashtags), the assumed intention of content marketing, and the characteristics of visual storytelling. Findings: Although wine communication is very much about creating a personal feeling, there was not a single person on 61 of the 100 examined Instagram photos. The potential of branded hashtags is exploited by almost every winery in their communication. The most dominant content types were the informative, aesthetically pleasing, and explicit advertising content. Suggestions: To obtain the loyalty of users, companies need a well-considered communication strategy tailored to the target audience. The most relevant social media principles are the following: long-term strategy, careful planning, conscious implementation, thorough information about and respect for the potential target audience, and content which is valuable and interesting for the target group and has real impact on its behaviour. It could also enhance user loyalty if posts had more added value. The methodology of storytelling could be exploited in wine communication for the following types of content: 1. advice and education: providing background knowledge (winemaking, viticulture, design, wine–food pairing) or instructions (“how to” videos e.g. on bottle opening); 2. help to users (information on moderate wine consumption, wine and a healthy lifestyle); 3. entertainment (people behind the bottle, family and historical stories, wine legends, anecdotes). In addition, creating a personal feeling is crucial in wine communication, which is specializing in handling uncertainty: winemakers can act as influencers in their field not only when selling wine but also in social media marketing.
The number of marketing communications tools and channels is steadily increasing – in addition, this growth has been accelerated since the emergence of the Internet and social media. On the one hand, there is an increasing dilemma of which tools one should choose from the plentiful options, and, on the other hand, the (material, human, and time) resources devoted to this are limited. This is valid for the marketing communications of “classic” products, services, and countries. This review article attempts to present the variety of available options with the help of the POE (paid, owned, earned) model and describe their advantages and disadvantages. The novelty of the study is that it focuses on a review of country communication campaigns and initiatives. It offers various visual examples for the different components of the POE model, clarifying the paid media, owned media, and earned media options for country brand communication. It mostly uses examples from Hungary, but other countries’ good practices are also included. Finally, as a result of the analysis, the article summarizes the possible ways of country brand communication according to the POE model in a summary table, which may also contribute to the work of academics and practitioners in the field.
The development of strong service brand confers market advantage under conditions of strong economic competition (Nádasi, 2016). In creating a strong service brand, the first steps include the elaboration of the service brand identity. The goal of this study consisted in applying the socio-scientific-based brand identity model of Burmann et al. (2017) in the analysis of the service brand identities of three Cluj-Napoca-based software and IT companies. The results of the analysis have shed light on the points of parity of the service brand identities of software and IT companies and highlighted the brand identity elements that enable differentiation (points-of-difference). The common points of the service brand identity of the Cluj-Napoca-based software and IT companies consisted in the emphasis on technical competences as well as customer and relationship orientation. Their differentiation was possible along their values and personality, which represent the symbolic benefits of service brand identity. Their symbolic differentiation also resulted in the differentiation of their offers.
During a communication act, the source sends a message to one or more addressees, T, using a channel and a code, D, so that the message will not be received by certain members of a population, X. It follows that a communication act can be represented through the system (T, D, X), where T, D, and X are parts of a population, T is not empty, and T and X are disjoint sets. Using such a model, we can approach some issues of the communication sciences from a set-theoretic perspective. In this study, the main types and effectiveness conditions of the communication acts are investigated.
The literature contends that youth are particularly fashion- and brand-sensitive, and they mostly prefer fast fashion brands; however, up to now, there has been little empirical data regarding Romanian youth’s fashion brand preferences. In order to fill this gap, the article presents the results of an exploratory research based on mixed methodology which was realized among students in Cluj-Napoca, Romania in connection with their fashion brand preferences. The online survey showed that a little more than half of the students do have a preferred fashion brand, and these are indeed mostly fast fashion brands. However, taken relatively, i .e. compared to other cues, the brand of the apparel is less important for the students. The most brand-sensitive individuals are those who are fashion involved, early adopters of trends, and less price-sensitive. The narratives of the focus-group research enriched the insight about students’ brand preferences.