This article presents the results of scientific-pedagogical research, which consisted in analyzing the American experience of the Dalton plan in the schooling of the Netherlands, the ranking surveys according to strict criteria, and the implementation of an adapted version of the original American pedagogical model of the Dalton Plan in the schooling of Holland; characterizing the features of the introduction of the Dalton Plan into the Dutch educational systems. While researching the works of M. Montessory, H. Parkhurst and D. Lager, had been examined as the main source of the study. The archival documents of the biggest collection of Helen Parkhurst papers of the Archive of University of Wisconsin Stevens Point had been analyzed. It was studied that American experience of the Dalton Plan is top ranked among private institutions of the country. It is obvious that after the United States, the country of the Dalton Plan origin, the continental Europe and Holland have a dominant position regarding the implementation of the Dalton plan in the educational systems. It is stated that schools implementing the Dalton Plan are united in recognizing the fact that such a pedagogical model ensures the development of the student’s individuality and his social experience. The special advantage the Dalton students obtain is the ability to use different approaches and sources in seeking information that is necessary for the organization and achievement of their own research. The ideas of the Dalton Plan can be justified in the light of modern theory and research. The Dalton Plan was successfully implemented into the primary and secondary schools of the Netherlands ranked the counrty11th in the world education survey. The Dalton Plan philosophy became one of the components of the complicated Dutch educational system.
The article analyzes experience of professional training of future specialists in physical culture and sports in higher educational establishments of Norway and Sweden. Research papers dealing with practice of realization of professional training of specialists in physical culture and sports abroad have been analyzed. Topicality of the research of professional training of future sports coaches in Scandinavian higher educational establishments has been proven. The fact that Scandinavian countries actively promote sports, advantages of physical culture, healthy lifestyle, health improving motor activity, and quality training of staff have been taken into account. The aim of the article is to define basics of the system of professional training of future specialists in physical culture and sport, namely sports coaches, in leading higher educational establishments of Norway and Sweden. The objectives of the research lie in the analysis of present-day state of physical-culture and sports education in Norway and Sweden; qualification trends and organizational peculiarities of professional training of specialists in the sphere of physical culture and sports in higher educational establishments of the aforementioned countries. Curricula of training program bachelors and masters of sports profile in Norway and Sweden have been characterized in the article. Peculiarities of educational programs of professional training of sports coaches in leading physical education and sport higher educational establishments of these countries have been defined. Curricula programs of Norwegian University for Sport and Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences have been presented. It has been revealed that the systems of higher sport education in Norway and Sweden are characterized with educational trajectory of specialists training being expressed in succession of stages of education that a student has to complete in order to acquire knowledge, skills, competences, and has a tendency to profile specialization. Analysis of differences and application of leading experience of professional training of future coaches in Norway and Sweden will have positive impact on the improvement of national system of higher sports education and will promote improvement of efficiency of future specialists’ education in the sphere of physical culture and sport/
Behavioural additionality is defined as permanent (long-term) changes in all spheres of behaviour and general capabilities of supported companies as a consequence of public support received. It closely relates to the output additionality because it creates prerequisites for improvement of firms economic performance. This paper aims to show the concrete application of this concept in the evaluation of programmes in the Czech Republic on the example of the TIP programme. It also tries to outline certain aspects that cannot be captured on the one hand when looking only at input and output additionalities, but on the other hand they enable better understanding of these additionality types. The methodology used for assessing behavioural additionality is based on a qualitative approach, a mix of a questionnaire survey and structured interviews. The evaluation confirmed the applicability of the behavioural additionality concept for programmes evaluation in the Czech Republic and showed that both the short-term and long-term effects of the R&D support in the areas of cooperation, R&D activities and firms strategies have already occurred.
The article studies the conditions of the educational environment in higher education institutions in France, especially at pedagogical universities, in order to explore the psychological conditions for developing competencies in future foreign language teachers. The article thoroughly analyzes the studies of French scholars on the interaction between the participants in the educational process. There are two main trends in sociological studies on educational relationship. The first theory proves the impossibility of abstracting the interaction between teachers and students from the organization of teacher education and its role in society and highlights the interaction in the division of labour. The second theory lies in studying the interaction between the subjects as a social reality, which occurs as a result of implementing certain interactions. The article considers the effects of mass formation in the context of such areas as degradation and remotization of interactions during professional training. It also describes the results of observations on the subjects of educational activity conducted by certain French scholars between the early 20th century and the early 21st century. The studies between 1975 and 2000 reveal the effects of massification in the social and public environment. The image of French universities of that period is characterized by overload and degradation in the relational context. The authors point to the weakness of integration between students, misunderstandings with teachers and, finally, the distance of communication. The early 21st century has not yet much contributed to the professional training of future foreign language teachers in the context of educational relationship between the participants in the educational process. The article analyzes possible explanations of relational difficulties. These, first of all, include unjustified expectations of the subjects of both parties. In addition, one of the most important influential factors is pedagogical mastery of communication quality. However, one of the most important reasons is the quality of human relationships. The current period in professional teacher training is characterized by a gap in the interaction between students and teachers as a result of introducing technologies, acquiring virtual knowledge and culture of instant information.
The article deals with the content of training Masters in National Security at the UK universities. The problem of the state’s national security in the context of the state’s general development and the realization of its national interests has been actualized. It is noted that maintaining the national interests of any state world provides an adequate response to the challenges and threats of today, namely the implementation of an effective national security policy. It is found that the UK’s national security strategy lists all the key threats that the government believes are threatening the state. Terrorism has been the top problem since the terrorist attacks in London in 2007. The proliferation of nuclear weapons and other types of weapons of mass destruction causes much anxiety, too. The UK strategy also includes threats such as transnational organized crime, global instability and conflictogenity (in the Middle East and Africa), global climate change, energy shortages, poverty, etc. The conducted research proves that the UK seeks to identify and eliminate such threats as transnational organized crime, global instability and conflictogenity, global climate change, energy shortages, poverty, etc. The UK National Security Strategy is based on such key values as human rights, the rule of law, a lawful and responsible government, justice, freedom, tolerance and equal opportunity for all. As a result, the UK universities aim to diversify professional training of specialists in national security incorporating into the field such areas as peace or war studies, conflict studies, terrorism, insurgency, etc. The content of professional training for national security specialists, namely masters, provided by King’s College London, the University of Leeds and Coventry University are characterized by the following features: adherence to the nation-wide principles of national security, the conceptual diversity of degree programmes (national security studies; peace and conflict studies; security, terrorism and insurgency), focus on humanities, profession-oriented compulsory modules, a wide range of optional courses, flexible combination of study and work and personal commitments, research challenges, taking into account the dilemmas and challenges of globalization and integration, promotion of human rights, etc. The relevant recommendations have been singled out to improve the content of professional training for such specialists at Ukrainian universities.
Types of non-formal adult education in the USA and Canada are singled out. Non-formal adult education in the United States and Canada is subdivided into basic adult education, education for professional development, education for personal development, specialized adult education, education for the development of civil society (constituents of which are education for peace, citizenship and democracy; education for protection of environment; multicultural education). The purpose and main assignments of adult education for professional development are systematized. The purpose is professional development, meeting the needs of personal development, self-actualization and self-realization in professional life. Its main tasks are: formation of positive attitude to professional work and motivation for professional growth; enriching social and professional competence; development of adequate professional conduct. Types of educational establishments for adults are systematized. University colleges, community colleges, colleges of general and vocational education, colleges of applied arts are an alternative to university education of adults in Canada and the USA. Specifics of programs in American and Canadian colleges is analyzed. Colleges and institutes introduce programs aimed at solving social problems, taking into account labor market demands. They offer training programs for development of applied skills in business, art, technology, agriculture, social and educational fields, medicine. A special place in non-formal education for professional development is given to education for the labor market, which is aimed at obtaining specific professional competencies that are necessary at labor market. Adults are involved in professional programs, trainings, courses, seminars, internships.
With geographical, cultural and economic benefits, Poland has adapted to the Bologna Process and has been one of the countries most preferred by students in Turkey within the scope of Erasmus. Turkey and Poland Physical Education and Sports Undergraduate Curriculum were analyzed with data from government agencies in both countries. Erasmus program has been prepared within the framework of the European Union in order to ensure the development of higher education institutions, to work jointly between the universities and to eliminate geographical and educational boundaries. Bologna Process, founded in 1998, Turkey’s included in 2001, envisages a structure that ensures the mobility of academic staff, comparable, not bounded by country borders, set standards, competitive and very well connected with each other. With over 400 universities, Poland offers a cost-effective and quality education program. Poland’s Physical Education and Sports Undergraduate program is 3 years. The curriculum, which has a weighted structure in the Field Training, also includes Professional Knowledge and General Culture courses. Turkey’s constant Physical Education and Sports Science program, which is determined by Higher Education Council (YÖK), is 4 years. In addition to the Field Training courses, Professions Knowledge and General Culture courses are also covered by the curriculum. There is one year (2 semesters, 60 ECTS) difference between Turkey and Poland curriculum. This difference is mostly composed of the National course elements in the Professions Knowledge and General Culture parts. The Field Training courses are divided into theoretical and practical applications and are processed at similar rates in both countries.
The purpose of our contribution is to discuss shortcomings of purely descriptive quantitative evaluation of research policies – based either on inputs (public investment, number of researchers), or outputs (publications, number of patents). To give an example we compare selected indicators across Visegrad countries in the period between 2006 and 2015. We conclude that both quantitative and qualitative perspectives as well as societal and political context should be taken into account when the performance of any R&D system and the impact of public investments into a public R&D sector are scrutinized.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one of the dynamically evolving research fields on the global scale. The world production of publication associated with the AI field increased by a third over the four-year period 2013–2017. Even less research intensive countries as Iran, Turkey, India and Indonesia appear to increase the share of the AI topics in their publication output. In the Czech Republic the fraction of publications in the AI field increased by approximately 10 % over this period. It makes the lowest increase within the EU/EEA. The field normalized citation index of the Czech publications in the year 2016 was above the world average but it is deeply below the top countries USA, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Singapore, and Norway.
The extent of international cooperation in AI is generally below the world average. The Czech Republic falls into the group of less cooperating countries. The countries exhibiting the highest growth in AI research are underrepresented in the Czech cooperation portfolio. The fraction of Czech publications in AI coauthored by foreign authors is lower than the national average. It indicates a lower international collaboration in comparison with other research fields. CR falls also in the group of countries less engaged in the international cooperation. The Czech international collaboration misses the countries exhibiting the most vigorous R&D in AI. The international collaboration adds to the quality of the research. The Czech publications originating from the international collaboration are cited above the country average for the AI field. It is even more significant in the collaboration with researchers from the top countries in the AI R&D.
The patent activity in the AI field has grown significantly in recent years. There is a marked increase of patent applications having inventors/applicants from more than one country. It indicates that the applied R&D in AI has a more international character in comparison with other technology fields. A high intensity of collaboration in the authorship of patent applications is within language and geographically neighbouring countries and with countries having a highly internationalized R&D system. Multinational corporations involved in international innovation networks contribute also to the international cooperation. ICT corporations like IBM, Google, or Microsoft which often employ foreign researchers have a dominant role in international cooperation.
The R&D of the Czech enterprises is relatively closed to the international cooperation. Domestic enterprises in AI use foreign employees in a small extent. The domestic enterprises even do not tap into the pool of intellectual property authored by the Czech researchers. The majority of patents with participation of Czech inventors is registered by foreign corporations.
The article analyzes the essential characteristics of the concept of pedagogical animation in the context of Ukrainian and Polish educational practices, specifies the peculiarities of pedagogical animation, studies the vectors of developing the phenomenon under study and compares relevant approaches to its implementation in the systems of the Ukrainian and Polish teacher education. The conducted analysis on the interpretation of the concept of pedagogical animation concludes that the Ukrainian education system unilaterally uses the functionality of this phenomenon. Pedagogical animation is mainly a part of the problems of socio-pedagogical, socio-cultural, cultural and leisure nature and issues of physical education organization. The underestimated importance of the phenomenon under study in the context of the educational process can significantly affect the implementation of the analyzed programme for updating the system of general secondary education. The use of pedagogical animation as a method of interaction between teachers and students based on child-centeredness and partner pedagogy contribute to implementing the main components of the Concept of the New Ukrainian School. The range of using pedagogical animation in educational practices of Polish teachers is more expanded. Along with the traditional socio-cultural and activity-based one, pedagogical animation is an integral part of the educational process. High social standards in the country urge pedagogical science and practice to implement a variety of training programmes, which incorporate animation skills as components of professional competencies. The variability of special pedagogies in Polish educational practices highlights the issue of pedagogical animation development both at theoretical and methodological levels. The results of the comparative analysis show that the use of pedagogical animation in Ukrainian and Polish educational practices contributes to developing pedagogical interaction at various stages of education, namely from preschool education to adult education. The development of pedagogical animation and its justification as a didactic structure will help to bring this phenomenon to a new level of educational significance and promote it as advanced pedagogical experience.