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Open access

Mirka Wildmannová

Open access

Agnieszka Mroczek-Czetwertyńska and Beata Detyna


Subject and purpose of work: The main goal of the article is to prove the impact of the Wałbrzych Special Economic Zone (WSSE) “Invest Park” on the development of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration region.

Materials and methods: The research carried out in 2017-2018 involved three groups of respondents: Wałbrzych Agglomeration residents, entrepreneurs and local government authorities. The study was supplemented with the information from WSSE “Invest Park”.

Results: For all three groups of respondents, WSSE “Invest Park” plays an important role in the development of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration. Its creation had the greatest impact on reducing the unemployment rate and also on improving the infrastructure. It is also important that WSSE top many rankings, gaining the first position as one of the best investment areas.

Conclusions: Establishing the WSSE in the area of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration has had a significant impact on the development of the region. This development is visible in the activities undertaken in the zone, attracting investors and creating new investment areas.

Open access

Mikołaj Jalinik and Krzysztof Łukaszuk


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the work is to define the importance of banks in the development of agricultural holdings and the role they play in rural environment.

Materials and methods: The relevant material was analysed on the basis of domestic literature concerning a range of banking products offered to natural and legal persons and by the inductive-deductive method.

Results: The source of data used for conducting the analyses and drawing conclusions is the information obtained from the Cooperative Bank in Bielsk Podlaski.

Conclusions: 1. The goal of cooperative banks is to provide the inhabitants of villages with access to banking services, including credits with attractive interest rates. 2. The services of a cooperative bank are most frequently used by farmers, craftsmen and teachers. 3. In Poland, cooperative banks operate on the basis of: the Foreign Exchange Act, the Payment Services Act, the Act on Freedom of Economic Activities, the Act on the National Bank of Poland, the Act on the National Guarantee Fund, the Law on Bankruptcy and the Rehabilitation Act, as well as on the resolutions of the Management Board of the National Bank of Poland.

Open access

Agata Surówka


Subject and purpose of work: The article presents the results of research into the dynamics of changes in income distribution as measured by means of GDP per capita for the regions Bulgaria and Slovakia using quantitative methods.

Materials and methods: The transition matrix was used as a research tool. As some authors note, since most of the research is limited to the assessment and analysis of global trends, this does not allow to distinguish the situation in which regions maintain their relative position from the situations in which the general distribution of income changes slightly while the location of some regions changes significantly. In this case, individual regions may differ considerably in their rate of development even in the periods when no convergence was observed.

Results: The approach adopted in this study made it possible to verify the degree of diversification of the economic strength of the regions examined and conduct a comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the transition matrices.

Conclusions: It was concluded that the regions of Slovakia and Bulgaria are developing at the same pace. Income stability can be observed. It is justifiable to look for and workout modern tools that will enable tracking changes in regional development.

Open access

Tim Jäkel


Dissatisfied public employees put at risk the quality of service delivery. Th is study investigates pay dissatisfaction among a sample (N=501) of municipal employees in Russia’s Stavropol region. We find that pay dissatisfaction results from negative perceptions of public employment compensation, low levels of risk aversion, unethical professional attitudes, and more than 4 years of working experience. Our findings suggest that municipal employees are sensitive to multiple wage gaps within the public sector, and that upward pay comparisons are a relevant predictor of dissatisfaction with pay. We conclude that widespread pay dissatisfaction poses a serious threat to the implementation of federal programs and sustainable rural development in Russia.

Open access

Karol Król


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the study is to assess the marketing potential of websites of rural tourism facilities’ in Poland.

Materials and methods: It was assumed that the marketing potential of a website provided the basis for placing it in global popularity rankings. The study involved 1000 paid domain websites. Each website was analysed using four tools which yielded values of selected indices, including Serpstat Visibility, Alexa Global Rank and SimilarWeb Global Rank.

Results: Almost half of the websites of rural tourism facilities’ obtained 0 or 1 point in the Open Page Rank index evaluation. For 764 websites from the analysed set, the Serpstat Visibility index value was not available, while in the remaining cases it was very low. The websites either reached distant positions in Alexa and SimilarWeb rankings or were not included in them at all.

Conclusions: The adopted research model does not allow for absolute assessment of the actual marketing potential of websites. However, the study confirmed that it was not used.

Open access

Łukasz Wiktor Olejnik


Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of this article is to verify the hypothesis of the occurrence of political business cycles at the self-governmental level in Poland.

Materials and methods: The article presents a quantitative analysis of expenditures on remuneration in the administration of Polish self-governments at the county (district) level (in the period 2007–2018) and at province (regional) level (in the period 1999–2018) with the use of Arellano-Bond and LSDVC estimators.

Results: The panel data analysis makes it possible to conclude that in Polish self-governments cyclical fluctuations of expenditure on remuneration can be observed. The increase in salaries depends on the power of the ruling coalition as well as unemployment and the output gap in a region. In the case of provinces and counties, also the increase of investment expenditures significantly affects the increase of salaries.

Conclusions: The results of the estimation of models clearly point to the presence of cyclical distortions in remuneration in public administration, which are caused by the upcoming elections.