The 1992 constitution of Ghana and other national legislative instruments guarantee and promote free compulsory universal basic education for all Ghanaian children irrespective of their background. This has been the practice for many years. Even though these policies have chalked some successes, especially regarding school attendance and gender parity, there still remains some level of uncertainty as to whether all Ghanaian children, especially those with disabilities, benefit from these policies. Using secondary information available, the paper provides an overview of the existing legislative instruments that seek to promote the adoption of inclusive education policy in Ghana. Evidence from the literature reveals that there are restrictions within the current policy provisions which make inclusive education not possible for children living with disabilities. The paper concludes and recommends that there should be some modifications or new developments of inclusive education to enable the system to accommodate the diverse educational needs of children with disabilities.
Ownership of the media was vested with the government, especially in the areas of issuance of licenses and renewal of such licenses, among others, through the National Broadcasting Commission empowered to carry out such salient responsibility. The empowerment of NBC through the enabling Decree in 1992 saw the emergence of private broadcast stations in Nigeria. But years after the deregulation of the broadcast media in Nigeria, the private broadcast stations and ownership are still bedeviled with some challenges, which If not well addressed, will leave them at cross roads; but if addressed properly, the sky would be too small to be their limit. To realize these, the study examined the challenges and prospects of private broadcast media using Africa Independent Television (AIT) and Rhythm 93.7fm as case studies. The survey method was used to expose the challenges faced by these stations and their prospects. In course of the study, the following findings, interalia, were discovered: that the private broadcast outfits are faced with challenges arising from poor facilities, government regulation and legislations, expensive equipment, welfare and debts. However, the study discovered that progress could be made if enabling environment would be created for them to strive.
The objectives of this research were to create the trial and develop the creation of Executive Function-EF Model. The research consisted of 3 procedures, which were 1) The formation of sample, which was teachers and parents from the school under Suan Dusit University’s Network; 2) The trial of sample, which was children between 3-5 years old from 6 schools under Suan Dusit University’s Network; and 3) The development of key informants, which were the Executive Function-EF Model specialists in terms of measurement and evaluation and early childhood education, including the representatives of teacher, administrator, and parents from the school under Suan Dusit University’s Network. The content analysis was used in the qualitative data analysis. The average, standard deviation, and dependent t-test were used in the quantitative data analysis. The research results found that 1. The creation of Executive Function-EF Model consisted of 4 components, which were principle, objective, learning process, and evaluation; 2. The trial result of the creation of Executive Function-EF Model was that the development of creation of Executive Function-EF Model of preschool children in the overall image and each aspect after using the model was higher than before using the model with the statistically significance level of .001 and 3. The result of the development of creation of Executive Function-EF Model was that the creation of Executive Function-EF Model that was developed was suitable to be used and had the possibility to be put into practice in a high level.
Prachom Thangthong, Chaturong Louhapensang and Panrapee Suttiwan
The importance of ages 0-3 years of child life is considered the cornerstone of all dimensions of health for the rest of the child’s life, which is the period in which children grow rapidly and there are many changes in every aspect of development. The purpose of this study is to learn the factors that are relevant to the design of toys for kids aged 0-3 years from development, behavior of children, and the characteristics of children’s toys that are suitable for the ages, including safety. The researcher studied the guidelines for the design of kid’s toys that were appropriate to the age range. This research is a combination that uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. The results of the study after trying playing toy sets from the study of toy design factors in kids aged 0-3 from 230 samples by observing behavior from a total of 80 children, then synthesizing the data for use in the design process, and evaluating by the parents of 150 children, found that it was at a good level, with average value (x̄= 4.17, SD = 0.39). When comparing with playing toy samples from the Toy Industry Association of Thailand, it was found that there was a moderate level of satisfaction with the mean of 3.42 (x̄= 3.41, SD = 0.61), and statistically significant at 0.05 level in all aspects. In conclusion, toys for kids in the age range of 0-3 years resulting from the study of 3 factors in toy design: development and behavior, playing methods, and safety are important links between each other. Development and behavior of children are consistent with the play methods because they affect the physical development of children by age, and safety in the design of toys is able to prevent the danger that could occur to kids.
Tommasa Agnese Chiofalo, María del Mar Fernández-Martínez, Carmen María Hernández Garre and José Juan Carrión Martínez
Objective. In this article we discuss the attitudes of teachers towards immigrant students in the classroom and investigate the students' experiences and that of their family; the other important factor in their education. Method. The methodology used was qualitative interviews, carried out in a comprehensive school catering for the different stages of compulsory education in Sicily (Italy). In-depth interviews were performed on 15 teachers who tutored immigrant students, with the aim of revealing their thoughts, emotions, perceptions and attitudes with regard to this social and educational experience. Results. Although there were disparate elements within the context of the school, the results were consistent with other studies that address this global, contemporary problem. We found a pronounced receptivity on the half of the staff, good responses between equals, but also a degree of impotence and institutional neglect in the face of the problem. It was consistently perceived that families of immigrant students were rarely involved in school life. The influence of socio-economic, ethnic and religious factors that often affect relations between the immigrant student's family and the school, also emerged. Conclusions. The phenomenon of immigrant children's school integration is plagued with difficulties, which are repeated and maintained in different areas and periods of time. Within the school, the teachers take on the main task of offering these children a favourable environment for integration. However, the other major aspect of our study, the family relationship, was less encouraging. The teachers felt a lack of cooperation from the families of immigrant children.
Transparency and corruption are topics with high interest not only for researchers but especially for politicians, citizens and decision takers. Transparency is seen as an important instrument in the fight against corruption. Transparency and corruption phenomena are considered to be the most difficult to assess due to the subjectivity that characterizes them. For this reason, in this study we will show some results based on citizens perception. The method used to collect information regarding citizens perception is questionnaire and than the data are analyzed through a logistic model. Interesting results came out this research such as people who have been in contact with public institutions during the last months have 5,477 times more opportunities to give bribes compared to those who have not been in contact. Transparency is considered a good tool to fight corruption because based on the model result people who know the meaning of the right to information have 86.3% less chance to give bribes than people who do not know the meaning of the right of information. Whereas people who know the Albanian law on the right to information have 48% less chance of bribing than people who do not know this law. Based on these results it is necessary to raise citizen awareness on the use of the right to information as instrument to fight corruption.
The purpose of this paper is to provide insights on the way in which the impact of input factors is perceived, as it had been defined by IASSB in 2014 according to the quality of auditing in Albania. In particular, the paper focuses on the point of view of the party involved in the audit market, a statutory auditor, who has the appropriate information and technical knowledge for the proper assessment of the audit quality. The paper examines the way in which the quality of the audit is influenced by Input factors, through an in-depth analysis of these factors, and their influence mode. This research is based on an interpretive research approach using quantitative research methods. The instrument used for this survey is the Questionnaire, it addresses legal auditors that are used as a sample. The study shows that the respondents’ group perceives a positive impact of the input factors on the quality of audit, especially those consisting of Value/Ethics/Attitudes, aspects related to the personal characteristics of legal auditors. In general, the findings of the paper can be considered important for the stakeholders for audit engagements and for academic researchers wishing to develop a deeper understanding of this contribution.
The objective of this article is to observe the redefinition of state responsibility based on its interaction with Private Military Security Companies. The boom, consolidation and decline of these companies between the end of the Cold War era and the first decade of the 21st century pose a dilemma to international law regarding State responsibility towards security issues within its territory. The lack of effective international law mechanisms and the political agenda of the States are both limitations for preserving human dignity in institutional and humanitarian fragile contexts. Hence, an interdisciplinary approach must be considered in order to seek an alternative path to this dilemma. This research used empirical data and documental analysis to achieve this objective.
The article’s aim is to compare the opposite processes of social exclusion and inclusion in South Africa and in the Czech Republic, in the past and at the present time. Even though these societies differ culturally and geographically, the comparison of some important factors, which are causing the exclusion of some people groups, might be interesting. In both cases we will closely follow the social, ethnic and racial groups, which are mostly excluded in the given environment. In South Africa it concerns Black and Coloured Africans, and in the Czech Republic the Roma ethnic minority group, the only ethnic group which is to a high extent excluded. In the history of these two countries we can find a similar historic aspect, both of them had experienced totalitarian regimes. Today, with the benefit of more twenty years, we can see the changes, which both these countries have undergone, and observe as well how these changes influenced the processes of inclusion and exclusion of the given social, racial and ethnic groups.
Sandrine Gaymard, Benjamin Taunay and Jean-Noel Amato
Pale skin in China seems to be a norm and the use of face-kinis on the beaches effectively implies that suntanning frightens. However other practices can be observed which raise questions. The aim of this article is to study the social representation of suntanning and the normative aspects of the representation with the conditionality of practices, among adepts of new beach practices in China. Interviews were carried out among a Chinese population who regularly follow these new beach practices on three Zhujiajian island beaches (Zhejiang Province). A free associations test and a conditionality questionnaire were filled out. The results show on one hand that the social representation of suntanning differs between men and women; on the other hand that conditionality differs little between men and women. Regression analysis shows that several sociodemographic variables such as age, can explain the conditions of acceptability of suntanning. Cross-checking the results shows up some contradictory elements which reflect the existence of an ongoing transformation in the identity of Chinese culture.