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Da Percepção Estética da Natureza à Acção – Uma Pedagogia Ambiental

Resumo

Afirmando que a problemática ambiental impõe um novo paradigma ético que realize a unidade das faculdades (sensibilidade, entendimento e razão prática) na unidade da acção, este artigo defende uma pedagogia centrada no estímulo da sensibilidade ao belo natural em articulação com o sentimento moral, como via privilegiada de enfrentamento da crise ecológica contemporânea. Na transição para uma dimensão inclusiva e planetária do conceito de cidadania, em tanto que expressão de um agir responsável e comprometido no colectivo em que é, a educação ambiental impõe-se como protagonista fundamental na formação de cidadãos capazes de pensar e agir ambientalmente.

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A Importância da Biodiversidade para o Ecólogo

Resumo

Com a presente dominância do Homem sobre os ecossistemas, a sociedade enfrenta agora novos desafios do foro social, ético e ambiental. A Ecologia, como ciência transversal e holística, tem muito a contribuir para a construção do conhecimento científico, aquisição de dados e elaboração de propostas de resolução de problemas ambientais com vista a diluir o ecocentrismo e catastrofismo. A ecologia enquanto ciência pode e deve mostrar as relações entre espécies, entre comunidades e ecossistemas, entre o Homem e a natureza, minimizando noções de destruição absolutistas, e contribuindo para um diálogo científico sobre ferramentas de gestão e conservação. Este é o contributo que se pretende dar com este artigo, através de dois casos de estudo, que permitirão sugerir novas medidas de gestão e atitudes sociais perante problemas reais.

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Permissão Para Degradar: Uma Análise Crítica Dos Biodiversity Offsets Nas Práticas Conservacionistas

Resumo

A conservação da biodiversidade tornou-se um compromisso inquestionável diante do seu papel inexorável para a manutenção da vida na Terra. Apesar do consensual compromisso em sustentá-la, as razões pelas quais fazê-lo ainda são alvo de discussões e controvérsias. Que valores devem reger sua proteção? Contudo, a conservação da biodiversidade está cada vez mais voltada para um lado objetivo-econômico, na qual a natureza é marginal aos interesses que parecem mais evidentes: a eficiência econômica. Esse artigo faz uma reflexão sobre os esquemas de biodiversity offsets, instrumentos cujo objetivo é a compensação pelos danos à biodiversidade provocados pelas atividades de desenvolvimento; e sobre a mudança nos valores da conservação da biodiversidade que tais instrumentos tendem a provocar. Uma mudança discursiva, institucional, técnica e material que altera o sentido de se fazer conservação e a relação humana com o mundo natural. Essa ‘nova’ perspectiva da conservação revela dilemas éticos fundamentais, e vem se tornando uma estratégia cada vez mais difundida no âmbito das políticas ambientais para a conservação.

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Student-generated video creation for assessment: can it transform assessment within Higher Education?

Abstract

Student-generated video creation assessments are an innovative and emerging form of assessment in higher education. Academic staff may be understandably reluctant to transform assessment practices without robust evidence of the benefits and rationale for doing so and some guidance regarding how to do so successfully. A systematic approach to searching the literature was conducted to identify relevant resources, which generated key documents, authors and internet sources which were thematically analysed. This comprehensive critical synthesis of literature is presented here under the headings of findings from literature, relevance of digital capabilities, understanding the influence of local context and resources, and pedagogical considerations. Student-generated video creation for assessment is shown to have several benefits, notably in supporting development of digital and communication skills relevant to today’s world and in enhancing learning. As an emerging innovation within assessment, intentionally planning and supporting a change management process with both students and staff is required. The importance of alignment to learning outcomes, context and resources, choice of video format to desired skills development, and to relevance beyond graduation is emphasised for video creation in assessment to be used successfully. Video creation for assessment is likely to grow in popularity and it is hoped the evidence of benefits, rationale and guidance as to how to do this effectively presented here will support this transformation. Further research to consider video creation for assessment with individuals rather than collaborative group assessments, and to establish academic rigour and equivalence would be beneficial.

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A (Basis for a) Philosophy of a Theory of Fuzzy Computation

Abstract

Vagueness is a linguistic phenomenon as well as a property of physical objects. Fuzzy set theory is a mathematical model of vagueness that has been used to define vague models of computation. The prominent model of vague computation is the fuzzy Turing machine. This conceptual computing device gives an idea of what computing under vagueness means, nevertheless, it is not the most natural model. Based on the properties of this and other models of vague computing, an attempt is made to formulate a basis for a philosophy of a theory of fuzzy computation.

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The Conventionality of Simultaneity and Einstein’s Conventionality of Geometry

Abstract

The conventionality of simultaneity thesis as established by Reichenbach and Grünbaum is related to the partial freedom in the definition of simultaneity in an inertial reference frame. An apparently altogether different issue is that of the conventionality of spatial geometry, or more generally the conventionality of chronogeometry when taking also into account the conventionality of the uniformity of time. Here we will consider Einstein’s version of the conventionality of (chrono)geometry, according to which we might adopt a different spatial geometry and a particular definition of equality of successive time intervals. The choice of a particular chronogeometry would not imply any change in a theory, since its “physical part” can be changed in a way that, regarding experimental results, the theory is the same. Here, we will make the case that the conventionality of simultaneity is closely related to Einstein’s conventionality of chronogeometry, as another conventional element leading to it.

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Explanation by Idealized Theories

Abstract

The use of idealized scientific theories in explanations of empirical facts and regularities is problematic in two ways: they don’t satisfy the condition that the explanans is true, and they may fail to entail the explanandum. An attempt to deal with the latter problem was proposed by Hempel and Popper with their notion of approximate explanation. A more systematic perspective on idealized explanations was developed with the method of idealization and concretization by the Poznan school (Nowak, Krajewski) in the 1970s. If idealizational laws are treated as counterfactual conditionals, they can be true or truthlike, and the concretizations of such laws may increase their degree of truthlikeness. By replacing Hempel’s truth requirement with the condition that an explanatory theory is truthlike one can distinguish several important types of approximate, corrective, and contrastive explanations by idealized theories. The conclusions have important consequences for the debates about scientific realism and anti-realism.

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