Introduction: The value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) was assessed in early diagnosis of gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in dogs.
Material and Methods: Subcutaneous gentamicin injection in 16 healthy adult beagles made the AKI model. Blood was sampled every 6 h to detect NGAL, Kim-1, L-FABP, and serum creatinine (SCr) concentrations. Kidney tissue of two dogs was taken before the injection, as soon as SCr was elevated (78 μmol/L), and when it had risen to 1.5 times the baseline, and haematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe changes.
Results: NGAL, Kim-1, and SCr levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) at 18, 30, and 78 h post injection, but L-FABP concentration was not associated with renal injury. At the earliest SCr elevation stage, findings were mild oedema, degeneration, and vacuolisation in renal tubular epithelial cells in pathology, and mild cytoplasmic and mitochondrial oedema in TEM. At this time point, NGAL and Kim-1 concentrations were significantly increased (P < 0.05), indicating that these two molecules biomark early kidney injury in dogs. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, their warning levels were > 25.31 ng/mL and > 48.52 pg/mL.
Conclusion: Plasma NGAL and Kim-1 above warning levels are early indicators of gentamicin-induced AKI in dogs.