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The association of absolute eosinophil count, serum immunoglobulin E and spirometry with co-morbid bronchial asthma in patients with allergic rhinitis

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. This study aimed to analyse the association of absolute eosinophil count (AEC), serum IgE and spirometry with co-morbid bronchial asthma in patients with allergic rhinitis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. This study involved 50 patients with signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis who underwent a clinical examination and various tests, including spirometry, and were followed up regularly. Patients found to have bronchial asthma or nasal polyposis were treated accordingly.

RESULTS. The study found the prevalence of bronchial asthma in patients with allergic rhinitis to be 58% and that the severity of bronchial asthma was reduced significantly, with lesser acute attacks and reduced hospitalizations with the effective treatment of allergic rhinitis (p=0.064).

CONCLUSION. This study showed that elevated AEC and serum IgE were significantly associated with co-existing allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma and increased the chance of co-existence of these two pathologies. Spirometry is a useful tool for observing the response to treatment.

Open access
Bleeding angiomatous polyps of the maxillary sinus: Review of literature and a rare case report

Abstract

ENT surgeons frequently encounter a variety of neoplastic, non-neoplastic and inflammatory masses involving the nasal cavity, the paranasal sinuses or the nasopharynx. Among these, the angiomatous polyp or angiectatic nasal polyps are rare and account for 4-5% of all inflammatory nasal polyps. They have variable growth patterns and clinical features. In angiomatous nasal polyps, there is a prominent component of dilated capillary-type blood vessels. We present a review of the literature regarding the most important features of this pathology and an unusual case of a large angiomatous polyp arising from the maxillary sinus.

Open access
Congenital anosmia: a case report

Abstract

Congenital anosmia, isolated or as a symptom of Kallmann or Klinefelter syndrome, is a rare condition found in young patients and children. Anosmia is detected during childhood, being reported by the patient or by his/her family. Besides the clinical examination and olfactometric evaluation, imaging is mandatory for the olfactory pathways investigation. Multidisciplinary approach is needed for these patients in order to determine the etiology of the smell loss. In the current paper, we are presenting the case of an 11-year-old child diagnosed in our ENT Department with congenital anosmia.

Open access
Pain in the cervico-facial pathology: elements of etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic principles

Abstract

The authors conduct a review of the etiopathogenesis, the main diagnostic methods and the treatment principles in cervico-facial pain. Pain in otorhinolaryngology is a multifactorial symptom, based on the rich innervation and vascularisation of the cephalic extremity. Pain can be of central or peripheral origin, acute and chronic. With the diversification of methods for exploring pain-generating lesions, different treatment protocols could also be achieved.

Open access
Pulmonary tuberculosis with rhinosinusal and otic manifestations - diagnostic challenge

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Unfortunately, tuberculosis is still being diagnosed among patients, independent of their age, gender, provenance or social category. The etiologic agent of tuberculosis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is known to have a period of latency between the initial infection and the clinical manifestation. The most common localization is pulmonary, but it can affect, secondarily, other organs, especially in the ENT regions, mimicking other systemic diseases.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We are presenting a case of a 51-year-old female patient, who was referred to our ENT Clinic with the suspicion of Behcet’s disease with rhinosinusal manifestations. She had a pulmonary assessment in another hospital, as she was known with left lung bronchiectasis, but the sputum samples were negative. The clinical otorhinolaryngologic examination together with the rheumato-logical assessment and the result of the nasal mucosa biopsy were suggestive for Behcet’s disease and the patient received 6 weeks of Prednisolone. The specific immunologic tests (cANCA, pANCA, HLA B51) were negative. The patient returned to our clinic after 2 months, accusing symptomatology reacutization with right otorrhea and bilateral hearing loss aggravation. Nasal and rhinopharyngeal mucosa biopsies were repeated and the anatomopathological result was specific for tuberculosis.

RESULTS. She was referred to the Pneumology Service where she received the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis with rhinosinusal and otic manifestations. Currently, the patient is under tuberculostatic treatment.

CONCLUSION. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis symptoms might be confused with other systemic diseases with rhinosinusal manifestations. Thorough examination and multidisciplinary approach are mandatory in order to establish a correct diagnosis followed by an appropriate treatment.

Open access
Rhinosinusal mucormycosis: Literature review and some particular cases

Abstract

Rhinosinusal mucormycosis is a life-threatening disease caused by fungus of the order Mucorales, which commonly affects individuals with diabetes and those in immunocompromised states. It is the most common form of mucormycosis with a high mortality rate (50-80%). Treatment options include reversal of the underlying risk factors when it is possible, systemic antifungal medication and radical surgical debridement. Prognosis is reserved because of the high potential of invasiveness, so diagnosis and early treatment are essential.

Herein, we make a review about the most important features of this pathology and we report two cases of rhinosinusal mucormycosis with similar presentations who followed the same treatment protocol – extended surgical debridement of the necrotic tissue combined with systemic antifungal treatment (Amphotericin B). Complete recovery was achieved in one patient, whereas in the other one, due to late presentation, massive extension and incomplete surgical debridement, the disease was complicated with multiple organ dysfunction and cerebral stroke.

By presenting these cases, we would like to point out the importance of early diagnosis, appropriate medical and surgical therapy to obtain a significant survival rate in patients with this fatal disease.

Open access
Cervical Spine Spondylitis with an Epidural Abscess in a Patient with Brucellosis: A Case Report

Abstract

Introduction

Human brucellosis, the most prevalent zoonotic disease worldwide, is a systemic infection which can involve several organs. Among musculoskeletal complaints, spondylitis is the most frequent complication of brucellosis and primarily affects the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. The involvement of the cervical spine is infrequent.

Case report

This case report concerns an unusual case of cervical spine spondylitis with an epidural abscess due to Brucella in a 43-year-old man. The diagnosis was based on the patient being domiciled in an endemic region, his symptoms and his occupation. Clinical outcomes improved following antimicrobial therapy of rifampin, doxycycline, and gentamycin, and were confirmed radiologically.

Conclusion

Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for these patients. The timely commencement of medical treatment can help prevent surgery.

Open access
Determination of Cut-off Serum Values for Resistin and S100B Protein in Patients Who Survived a Cardiac Arrest

Abstract

Introduction

In an attempt to identify patients who have successfully survived a resuscitated cardiac arrest (CA), attention is drawn to resistin and S100B protein, two biomarkers that have been studied in relation to CA.

Aim

The study aimed to identify the potential cut-off serum values for resistin and S100B in patients who had CA, compared to healthy volunteers, given that, currently, none of the markers have normal and pathological reference range limits for human assay levels related to this pathology.

Materials and Methods

Forty patients, resuscitated after out-of-hospital CA and forty healthy controls, were included in the study. All patients were followed up for seventy-two hours after CA or until death. Blood samples for biomarkers were collected on admission to the ED (0-time interval) and at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours following resuscitation. Only one blood sample was collected from the controls. The serum concentrations of biomarkers were measured.

Results

For each time interval, median serum levels of resistin and S100 B were ​ significantly higher in patients with CA compared to healthy controls. The cut-of value for resistin in patients with CA, at the 12-hours versus controls, was > 8.2 ng/ml. The cut-of value for S100B in patients with CA versus controls recorded at 6 hours, was > 11.6 pg/ml.

Conclusion

Serum levels of resistin and S100B are higher among resuscitated CA patients compared to controls.

Open access
Locked-In Syndrome Following Cervical Manipulation by a Chiropractor: A Case Report

Abstract

Introduction

Vertebrobasilar occlusion poses difficult diagnostic issues and even when properly diagnosed has a poor prognosis. Newer studies highlight a better outcome when thrombectomy was carried out between six and twenty-four hours after an initial diagnosis of stroke. This paper reports a case where a patient suffered a vertebrobasilar stroke secondary to a traumatic bilateral vertebral arteries dissection was treated with late thrombectomy.

Case presentation

A 34-year-old woman was manipulated on the cervical spinal column by a chiropractor. Following three weeks of cervical pain, she presented with severe aphasia and quadriplegia (NIHSS = 28). An MRI scan indicated ischemia of the vertebrobasilar system. Thirty-one hours after the onset of these symptoms, a thrombectomy was performed. After one month, the patient could move her head and the proximal part of her limbs but remained confined to bed (NIHSS = 13).

Conclusion

The current case illustrates the benefit of late mechanical thrombectomy for a posterior cerebral circulation infarct. Although there was a delay in treatment, partial recovery ensued.

Open access
The Management of a Thirteen Weeks Pregnant Woman Rendered Brain-Dead Following a Ruptured Aneurysm

Abstract

Introduction

The current lack of clear guidelines on how to manage cases of brain-dead pregnant patients makes this topic controversial and extremely difficult to deal with for both medical and ethical reasons. This report deals with such a situation.

Case presentation

A twenty-seven years old woman, thirteen weeks pregnant, with a ruptured brain aneurysm was admitted to an Intensive Care Unit. She presented with loss of all brain functions, but somatic support was sustained to enable the delivery of her baby.

Conclusion

The case report gives a detailed account of the management of the mother before the successful delivery of her baby. It indicates the need for ongoing contributions to the debate on this delicate subject area to establish guidelines on how to manage brain-dead pregnant patients.

Open access