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Open access

Md. Hossain Ali

Abstract

Due to intensive irrigated rice cultivation during dry season, declining trend of groundwater level is observed in many parts of Bangladesh. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at four experimental stations of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Bangladesh to evaluate the performance of some Boro rice cultivars in different planting dates with respect to yield and irrigation water requirement, and to optimize between yield and irrigation water requirement, with a view to reduce groundwater withdrawal and hence reducing mining of groundwater. The transplanting dates were 21th January (T1), 15th February (T2), 7th March and 30th March. Four rice cultivars were used. The results showed that the rice growth period was shortened with the later dates of transplanting. Generally, the yield of all cultivars at first and second transplanting (i.e. in T1 & T2) are good, and decrease at the later transplanting dates (T3, T4) and hence could not be recommended among farmers. When we consider the irrigation savings in T2 compare to T1, the irrigation savings varies with location and year, but the general tendency is that the second transplanting can save irrigation water. By considering economic (intrusion of additional rabi crop between two rice crops) and ecological factor (irrigation reduction, and hence reducing groundwater withdrawal), we recommend that the most suitable transplanting time for Boro rice should be 15th February. As such, we can effectively achieve good yield, reduce irrigation requirement, and creating opportunity for possible intrusion of addition Rabi crop between two rice crops. Overall, the findings of the present study can provide effective transplanting time and cultivar to reduce groundwater withdrawal in the present agro-ecosystem of northwestern Bangladesh and other similar areas.

Open access

Marta Cudzik, Ewelina Soroka and Marcin Olajossy

Abstract

Introduction: Dissociative identity disorder, also known as multiple personality disorder, involves simultaneous manifestation of multiple alternative personalities in one human body. The disorder is still a puzzle to contemporary researchers. In comparison to the United States, where the detection rate of this disorder is growing, in Poland, it is still a niche issue, unknown to many scientists and clinicians. Rather alarmingly, this situation has remained the same for many years now.

Objective: The aim of the present study is to draw attention to the adaptive character of dissociative identity disorder as a defense mechanism in children who have experienced extremely traumatic events in early childhood. The work also sets itself the task of disseminating knowledge about multiple personality disorder in the Polish scientific community, with the hope of encouraging wider research in this area in Poland.

Material and Methods: To investigate this issue, we searched articles available in the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska) databases for the years 1960–2018. The following search terms were used: multiple personality, dissociative identity disorder, dissociative identity disorder and children. On the basis of a meta-analysis of the available literature, we offer a general characterization of the disorder, describe its symptomatology, present several theories of its etiology and conclude it through the prism of its adaptive function.

Results and Discussion: From the analysis of the gather data, we can conclude that multiple personality disorder can be a broad variant of the child’s defense mechanisms against extreme, traumatic events from childhood, which they try to cope with by creating alter personalities. Abused children create other representations of the Self to be able to rid themselves of suffering, a process that is necessary for them to survive and further develop mentally and physically.

Conclusions: There is no doubt that Polish research on this disorder is much needed. It could provide more information on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of multiple personality. In addition, a better understanding of the issue might bring us closer to the understanding of how the human mind works.

Open access

Radica Živković Zarić, Marijana Stanojević Pirković and Nedim Hamzagić

Abstract

The compound cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) is the most widely used anticancer drug, but due to its serious side effects (including gastrointestinal symptoms, renal tubular injury, neuromuscular complications, and ototoxicity), clinical applications of cisplatin are limited. Therefore, these limitations have provided an encouragement for further research into other transition metal complexes, with an aim to overcome the disadvantages related with cisplatin therapy. In the search for effective complexes that can be targeted against tumor cells, many research groups synthesized various ruthenium( II) complexes with different ligands. Also, newly synthesized ruthenium(II) complexes showed selective anticancer activity against different types of cancer cells. Activity of ruthenium(II) complexes in some cases was even higher than that of cisplatin against the same cells. Precise mechanism of action of ruthenium(II) complexes is not fully understood. The different examples mentioned in this review showed that ruthenium(II) complexes decreased viability of cancer cells by induction of apoptosis and/or by cell cycle arrest which implies their different mechanism of action against different types of cancer cells.

Open access

Rasanu Irene

Abstract

The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of patient-reported genitourinary dysfunction symptoms in Parkinson’s disease patients from the Southeastern Romania.

The study was performed on 86 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease from 5 Outpatients Clinics of Constanta, 56% males, mean age 70.6 years, mean disease duration 6.33 years. The patients have been assessed for the presence of genitourinary symptoms using the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease for Autonomic Symptoms (SCOPA-AUT) as a self-administered questionnaire.

The vast majority of study population (98.8%) reported at least one genitourinary dysfunction. The most common urinary symptom was nocturia (95.3%, 95% CI 90.8-99.7), followed by pollakiuria (82.5%, 95% CI 74.4-90.5), difficulty passing urine and urge to urinate (each present in 76.7% of studied PD patients, 95% CI 67.4-85.3), incomplete bladder emptying (75.5%, 95% CI 66.4-84.5), urinary incontinence (67.4%, 95% CI 57.5-77.3). As frequency, most of the study subjects experienced genitourinary symptoms only “sometimes”. None of the investigated PD patients affected by genitourinary symptoms used specific medication therapy.

Open access

Prună Ion Irina, Ciufu Carmen and Bordei Petru

Abstract

Common femoral arteries diameters (left and right) were studied, on a number of 60 cases (26 women and 34 men) with a General Electric – Voluson 730 Expert ultrasonograph. The diameters of the common femoral arteries, left and right, were measured in three points: proximal, middle and inferior, in 60 cases as it follows: 26 cases on women (43,33%) and 34 cases on men (56,70%). Regarding the proximal third of the right common femoral artery, the diameter range was found between 6,1 and 8,9mm, in women being between 6,2-7,9mm, and in men between 6,1-8,9mm. The diameter of the middle third had values between 5,8-9,7mm, in women ranging from 6,1 to 7,8mm, and in men from 5,8 to 9,7mm. At the level of the inferior third, the femoral artery had a diameter between 6,8-12,7mm, in women ranging from 6,5 to 9,8mm, and in men from 6,3 to 12,7mm. The common left femoral artery, in its proximal third had a diameter with values between 5,7 – 9,9mm, in women from 6,2 to 8,0mm, and in men being between 5,7-9,9mm. In the middle third the values were found between 6,1-9,8mm, in women being from 6,6 to 7,9mm, and in men from 6,1 to 9,8mm. Regarding the inferior third, the diameters had values between 7,0-12,5mm, in women ranging from 7,1 to 10,5mm, and in men, from 6,8 to 12,5mm.

Open access

Kozma Andrei and Forna Norina

Abstract

The dental anthropology can bring various contributions in the assessment of the pathology of the stomatognathic system as this field encompasses the genetic and clinical researches focused on the developmental defects of crowns, post-eruptive changes (dental wear, culturally-related dental changes) as well as patterns of teeth loss. The implant-prosthetic rehabilitation is highly recomended for these patients as having the highest rate of success in the therapy of the stomatognathic system disorders. The anthropological elements related to the optimisation of the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system are related to the anatomical and morphological featires of prosthetic field, the favourable and non-favourable areas of the prosthetic field, the type and the orientation of the traction and pressure masticatory forces as well as the lamina dura preservation when edentation is associated to periodontal disease.

Open access

Balla Árpád and Pelok Benedek-György

Abstract

We present the life, career and memory of Pápai Páriz Ferenc (1649, Dés - 1716, Nagyenyed), professor and rector of the Protestant College of Nagyenyed, the famous Transylvanian humanist, medical doctor, poet, philosopher, church historian, heraldist. He studied in Dés (now Dej, Romania), Gyulafehérvár (now Alba Iulia, Romania), Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), Marosvásárhely (now Târgu-Mureş, Romania) and Nagyenyed (now Aiud, Romania). In the spring of 1672 he set off from Nagyenyed for a pedestrian trip abroad. He admired the Treasury in Dresden, and attended medical studies in Leipzig and Heidelberg. He completed his medical studies in Basel. In 1674 he became doctor medicus and was elected member of the board of the medical faculty. He returned to Nagyenyed in 1675. Between 1676 and 1690 he is the physician of the court of the Transylvanian princely couple. In 1678 he got a department in the College of Nagyenyed, extended in 1680 with Greek, physics, natural sciences and medical knowledge departments. Between 1681 and 1715 he was the rector of the College. Above all he cherished peace. He was a versatile writer. His medical book written in Hungarian, the PAX CORPORIS, i.e. “the peace of the body” was printed and published at Kolozsvár in 1690. This was dedicated to the target community: “for the benefit of the stupid poor”, it substituted the physician in the family. The rules of a healthy lifestyle were formulated also. The popularity of the book was proved by those eleven editions we know about. Another great work was the Hungarian-Latin, Latin-Hungarian dictionary (Lőcse, now Levoca, Slovakia, 1708). His memory is kept by a bust and plate in the courtyard of the Protestant College of Nagyenyed. The Hungarian postal service (Magyar Posta) released a stamp on his 350th anniversary. His life, work and importance were appreciated by a number of authors across centuries. An internet search on the terms “Pápai” + “Páriz” + “Ferenc” returns an important number of hits. Many foundations and associations are dedicated to his memory.

Open access

Lészai Lehel, Túrós János Levente, Kiss Szilárd-Leó, Bereczky Lujza-Katalin, Nagy Katalin, Szabó Tamás and Szabó Béla

Abstract

The shortening of the cervix, cervical incompetence or insufficiency that causes late miscarriage or preterm birth syndrome gives importance and clinical significance for the cervical cerclage or cervical stitch as treatment. Nowadays closure of the cervix with cerclage surgery is an effective way of preventing premature opening of the cervix, helping the pregnancy near due date, thus significantly reducing the risk of miscarriage and premature delivery.

The retrospective longitudinal cohort study is based on an examination of 164 pregnant woman who underwent cervical cerclage surgery at Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic nr. I Târgu-Mureș, between 2000-2017. The McDonald’s method was used in every case that we have studied.

Cerclage surgery was performed in most cases in the second trimester. The results in the study reflect that in the majority of the cases, intervention is effective in preventing premature opening of the cervix. Most women are multipara and had multiple gestational pregnancy, which can also contribute to the weakening and early opening of the cervical closure system. In 66.5% of the cases, at least one abortion or miscarriage is present in the history of the disease, which may also lead to a weakening of the cervical closing function.

Following cerclage surgery, 11.6% abortion and 88.4% in childbirth occurred, and in most cases, intervention can effectively prevent second trimester abortion while reducing the risk of premature birth (65, 8% had no premature birth in our study).

Open access

Szabó-Zoltán István, Foroughbakhshfasaei Mohammadhassan, Dobó Máté, Noszál Béla and Tóth Gergő

Abstract

The chiral separation of three racemic immunomodulatory drugs, thalidomide, pomalidomide and lenalidomide was studied, using three cyclodextrin bonded stationary phases (β-, hydroxypropyl-β- and carboxymethyl-β-CD) in reversed-phase and polar organic mode. In polar organic mode, using acetonitrile and methanol, no chiral separation was observed. In reversed-phase mode pomalidomide showed chiral interactions with all selectors, while lenalidomide showed no chiral interactions with any of the cyclodextrins employed. Thalidomide showed chiral interactions with β- and carboxymethyl-β-CD, only. Based on these observations it can be concluded that the oxo group at position two is necessary for chiral recognition, while the aromatic primary amine group enhances it. Orthogonal experimental design was used to investigate the effect of the eluent composition, flow rate, and the column temperature on chiral separation. Concentration of the organic modifier was the most important factor among the investigated three variables showing high impact on the chiral separations. In the case of thalidomide optimized parameters (β-cyclodextrin-based stationary phase, 0.1% acetic acid/acetonitrile 95/5 (v/v), 5 °C column temperature, 0.6 ml/min flow rate) resulted in a resolution of 1.68 ± 0.02 between enantiomers. For pomalidomide, this value was 2.70 ± 0.02, under the circumstances as follows: β-cyclodextrin-based stationary phase, 0.1% acetic acid/acetonitrile 90/10 (v/v), 15 °C column temperature and 0.8 mL/min flow rate. Utilizing the experimental conditions employed on an LC-MS/MS system, concentrations as low as 2 ng/mL could be determined from mouse plasma for both substances. Elution sequences were determined with enantiopure standards and in both cases the R-enantiomers eluted first. The methods developed are suitable for the chiral separation of the abovementioned compounds and are sound starting points for bioanalytical method development.