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Paula Orzechowska, Janina Mołczanow and Michał Jankowski

Abstract

This paper investigates the interplay between the metrical structure and phonotactic complexity in English, a language with lexical stress and an elaborate inventory of consonant clusters. The analysis of a dictionary- and corpus-based list of polysyllabic words leads to two major observations. First, there is a tendency for onsetful syllables to attract stress, and for onsetless syllables to repel it. Second, the stressed syllable embraces a greater array of consonant clusters than unstressed syllables. Moreover, the farther form the main stress, the less likely the unstressed syllable is to contain a complex onset. This finding indicates that the ability of a position to license complex onsets is related to its distance from the prosodic head.

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J. O. Ogbe

Abstract

The study was meant to explore the readiness of primary schools toward school health emergencies in Delta State, Nigeria. The method was the use of exploratory / descriptive study design of the expost facto method. Three variables of personnel, equipment and environment were used, while three research questions and three hypotheses were used as a guide. Simple questionnaire of Yes or No was used to generate data. Descriptive statistics of frequency count, percentages and paired t-test statistics were used to analysed the data. It was found that personnel for school health emergency were not available in schools and were found to be negatively significant at −30.97 (p = 0.05) and had negative correlation of −1.00. Equipment was found to be available (at least, at the level of First Aid Box) and found significant at paired t - test value of 19.01 (p = 0.05) while environment for school health emergency was not available and negatively significant at paired t – test value of -111.891 (P = 0.05). The study concluded that readiness of primary schools in Delta state for health emergencies is still at its infancy. The study concluded that readiness of primary schools in Delta State is still at its infancy. It was recommended among others Government and stakeholders in primary school education should provide at least one school health Nurse in every primary school and school health teachers be provided with opportunity of training in First Aid and school health emergency.

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Saxhide Mustafa, Fatos Berani and Hajdin Berisha

Abstract

Organizations and managers during their organizational activities, not rarely face different conflicts. Managers, depending on their gender, use different ways to resolve these conflicts while this reflects on their subordinates. The purpose of this study is to analyse the most common approaches applied to resolve conflicts in organizations in Kosovo and the impact of gender on the choice of style to handle conflicts. The study employs a quantitative approach whilst convenience sampling method is used for the purpose of selecting respondents. The study is conducted in ten largest companies in Kosovo in which hundred employees and fifty managers were included. A structured questionnaire is used to collect primary data and necessary tests were conducted through SPSS. Results reveal that managers use the integrative style more than other styles during the conflict management process; gender partially affects the choice of the style and the style of conflict management affects the likelihood of managers among employees. The study suggests that the field of conflict management among organizations in Kosovo needs more academic research.

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Joseph N. Bayeh and Georgios C. Baltos

Abstract

The Peace of Westphalia signed in 1648 signaled the beginning of the modern international system of states. International relations (IR) theory identifies this treaty as the founder of the principle of political sovereignty whereby each nation-state has full control over its territory and domestic affairs, thus it is the beginning of an international system of states. The latter is based on the sanctity and inviolability of interstate borders as its main defining feature. This paper investigates the recent developments in international relations and their significance to the concept of borders in IR theory; on the one hand, a “clash of civilizations” thesis assumes that new “fault lines” borders among civilizations of, mainly, different religions are taking precedence over traditional territorial borders of nation-states, while, on the other hand, a rise in conservative nationalism and, possibly, protectionism, over the traditionally liberal West reasserts the primacy of territorial borders in IR. In particular, this study examines whether such developments signal a paradigm shift in IR theory that may necessitate revisiting certain fundamentals of mainstream respective theories.

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Shpresa Tolaj Gjonbalaj and Rregjina Gokaj

Abstract

This article tries to give a vivid frame of the historical background of the development of figurative art in both sides of Albanian boarders, thus that of Kosovo and Albania, as a unique belonging of the same national features. It is represented through a historical and theoretical background so that to show the roots and the layers of the development of art in Europe, which is in all senses the impact Albanian art, but not only has taken from. Pure and concrete examples of Albanian painters of the very first generation and as an inspiration to what follows later, are given to demonstrate the will and need of Albanian society to cultivate artistic tastes.

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Kelechi Elijah Nnamani, Chukwuemeka Enyiazu, Ikemefuna Sunday Nwoke, Ebere Dorothy Ochiaka, Joy Nkiru Agbo and Obinna Augustine Ovaga

Abstract

Given the low level of economic development and the attendant burgeoning social vices at local level in Nigeria, this study illuminates on the strategic framework for sustainable wealth creation in Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. The study argues that rather than the constant reliance on the ‘one size fits all’ analysis which has fundamentally blurred the minds of development experts and policymakers, greater emphasis should be placed on context-driven and specific studies. Among other things, the study notes that context-driven studies would enable each local government identify problems peculiar to it and evolve problem-solving measures consistent with local realities and demands. In the context of the present study, we share the optimism that Odukpani Local Government Council should prioritize wealth creation as basis for stimulating economic growth and development in the area. The study relies on triangulation of data involving interviews with key stakeholders, on-the-spot observation, participatory rural appraisal and information derived from relevant literature.

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Kingsley Okechukwu Dimuna and Abiodun Olukayode Olotuah

Abstract

The objective of the study is to analytically assess the residents’ perception of planning of six housing estates and their satisfaction levels in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. The population of the study comprises all residents of the six housing estates in Benin City as at 2018 which is the study period. The data were collected from the six (6) estates covered by this study: Oluku Housing Estate, EDPA Housing Estates Ugbowo, Federal Housing Estate, Oregbeni, Federal Housing Estate on Ikpoba Hill, Iyekogba Housing Estate, Ebo Village, and Andrew Wilson Housing Estate, Evbuoriaria. A total of 1200 copies of questionnaires were administered across the six housing estates. However, the total response rate of 1000 was achieved as only these copies of questionnaires were retrieved in usable format. Descriptive statistical tools such as means, standard deviations, kruskal-willis test and categorical regression analysis were utilized for the data analysis. The result showed that the relative satisfaction index scores for the all the estates are on the fairly satisfied region (RSI: 2.1-3.0) and this implies that residents are fairly satisfied with the estate planning conditions. The Kruskal-willis test confirms the absence of any significant differences in RSI scores across the estates while the categorical regression analysis results shows that estate planning has a positive effect on residents satisfaction and this is significant at 5% (p=0.003) which implies improvement in estate planning results in higher satisfaction levels. The study recommends the need for Government policy to encourage a decent living environment in terms of planning of estates.

Open access

Alexander Bolshoy

Abstract

In this review, I have presented several topics relevant to the present state and to the future state of the scientific field that I propose to call sequence biology (SB). In some pertinent publications, this field was called DNA linguistics. At the heart of SB lies a concept of a sequence code. In this review, I discussed three concepts: a concept of SB, a concept of encyclopaedia of genetic codes, and a concept of a corpus DNA linguistics..

Open access

Michaela Zemková

Abstract

Although language is something deeply embedded in our nature, the question of its origin is of the same order as the misty question of the origin of life. I point out that the core of the problem can be rooted in the dichotomy between language and speech, similar to the dichotomy of genotype and phenotype in biology. Following the ontogeny–phylogeny framework, I propose that studies of language ontogeny, especially its early stages, can bring a new understanding to language, same as the study of communication in non-human primates..

Open access

Елена Васильевна Петрухина

Abstract

The author of the article applies synchronic and diachronic approach to describe consistent patterns in Russian word formation, when the facts in contemporary Russian are explained with due regard to the history of their development and formation. The research focuses on commonly used derivatives of the Church Slavic, which have not lost their sacred meaning despite the general secularization beyond religious discourse of evangelic lexis in Russian (as well as in other Slavic languages). The preservation of the sacred meaning is influenced by a specific process of differentiation between the sacred and the secular by means of word­building formants in cognate synonyms (for example, Рождество [‘Christmas’]/рождение [‘birth’]; житие [‘the life (of a saint)’]/житье [‘ordinary life’]; Воскресение [‘Resurrection’]/воскресенье [‘Sunday’]; искупить [‘to redeem’], Искупитель [‘the Redeemer’]/выкупить [‘to buy out’] etc.). The last section of the article considers the process of semantic specification in diachrony of originally synonymic cognate derivatives like живот [‘belly’], житие [‘the life (of a saint)’], жизнь [‘life’], which has led to a complete change of the semantics of the lexeme живот [‘belly’] (a gradual strengthening of its physical component has led to the modern meaning ‘belly, part of body’) and the prevalence of the word жизнь (with its Old Slavonic suffix ­знь). The latter, having absorbed the “life­related” semantic of lexemes живот ‘belly’ and житие ‘the life (of a saint)’, expresses all aspects of its understanding and interpretation by the contemporary language community. The author assumes that this process could also have been influenced by the general correlation between the Church Slavonicisms (both elevated and general denominations) and native Russian words (both concrete and ordinary denominations) in Russian. Word­building formants play a significant role in the differentiation of the sacred and the secular (and preserving the sacred) when the religious lexicon of the Church Slavonic origin enters the modern Russian language.