Two field trials were carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin in the 2012 and 2014 planting seasons to find out the effeciency of Trichoderma harzianum as a bio-control agent in controlling root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in two pepper varieties (F1 Nikita and Gianfranco Fuscello). A 2 × 2 factorial design fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used with 5 replications. The T. harzianum filtrate significantly increased plant height, number of leaves, and yield. The control showed higher root galling and soil nematode population. Varietal differences showed that F1 Nikita performed significantly better than G. Fuscello. The combination of Trichoderma and F1 Nikita appears effective for managing root-knot nematodes.
Zsolt Székely-Varga, Timea Hitter Buru, Alex-Peter Cotoz, Roxana Alexandra Sabo and Maria Cantor
This paper presents the behaviour of five hyacinth varieties: ‘City of Haarlem’, ‘Blue Jacket’, ‘Miss Saigon’, ‘Jan Boss’, and ‘Double Prince of Love’ in forced culture under the influence of different culture substrates. For this purpose, the following parameters were monitored concerning the main characteristics: number of flowers from inflorescence, length of stem flower, earliness of flowering period, and the flowers’ blooming period. The results of this work show that in culture substrate garden soil and sand (1:1) the best results were obtained regarding the length of the floral stem, number of flowers from inflorescence, and flowering period, and less favourable results were obtained for bloom precocity.
Béla Biró-Janka, Imre-István Nyárádi, Marcel Matei Duda, Beáta Demeter and Andrea Nagygyörgy
During the study, the seeds of seven sweet basil cultivars were treated with 100 ppm solutions of gibberellic acid or ascorbic acid prior to a 14-day germination experiment. Values of the first day of germination, germination energy, germinability, mean time and rate of germination, and uncertainty and synchrony of germination were calculated. The results show that both of the substances altered the measured parameters, priming with gibberellic acid proving to be a more effective way to enhance the germination of basil seeds. Also, they revealed major differences among the germination parameters of the examined cultivars.
Timea Hitter Buru, Erzsébet Buta, Gertrud Bucur and Maria Cantor
Nature, childhood, and ecopsychology can to be connected in the landscape of a schoolyard. The landscape architecture of the natural environments serves as a wide-open green space for outdoor activities, creating imaginative and inventive urban environmental layouts and connecting natural elements. School-based green experience, either indoor or outdoor, can be a physical and mental activity for children. In the case of individuals, it makes` easy to access a natural, green environment and to be actively involved in a natural setting, developing either social and/or cognitive functions and improving concentration and creativity. Therapeutic horticulture activity, such as planting indoor plants, can be a good experience for developing team work, the proprioceptive (kinase) receptors, affectivity, socialization, permanent care, and responsibility. The potential benefits of ornamental plants for children involved in public education include spending time in outdoor spaces, fresh air and sunshine, experiencing a sense of control, and being exposed to sensory stimulations. Physical and psychological education based on therapeutic horticulture activities in Romanian schools, such as planting and green care, can provide important opportunities for children to develop their attachment to nature, offering sustainable education solutions to an active part of the natural environment.
László Miklós, Anna Špinerová and Monika Offertálerová
Nowadays, changes in environment have become characteristic of notorious mainstream political topics, with a corresponding moral, political, and financial support. The presented article deals with the landscape-ecological scientific aspects of climatic changes and of ecosystem services. The research of both phenomena is based on the complex investigation of the geosystem and, as a second step, on the scientifically-based interpretation of the obtained results. The problem resides in the question concerning the capability of scientific institutions and teams to deal with these topics with scientific profoundness, taking into account intensive public pressure and high expectations.
Anna Rita Tóth, Tímea Rubóczki and Mária Takácsné Hájos
Recently, industrial tomato production in Hungary shows an increasing tendency after a weak processing period. However, to maintain the cultivation profitable, the use of proper technology and genotype is indispensable.
In the experiment, five hybrids and one variety were evaluated in a plot experiment design on open field. The main objective was to evaluate the fruit quality of different genotypes and to determine the suitability for mechanical harvest.
According to the results, Heinz 1015 F1 and Heinz 9478 F1 had the best fruit quality for industrial processing.
Nowadays, the use of hybrids with good adaptability and resistance properties is important for a profitable production.
Sulaiman Naif Ami, Ibrahim Esa Taher, Fenik Sherzad Hussen and Ayoub Ibrahim Ahmed
This study was conducted to identify races of wheat seed gall nematode Anguina tritici by using molecular identification for this nematode species parasitized on durum and bread wheat cultivars. Wheat seed galls of both cultivars were collected from two cities, Erbil and Duhok, from the Kurdistan Region and Iraq respectively. DNA was extracted from both nematode isolates (populations), and then PCR reactions were performed with Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region using primers TW81/AB28 with 2 µl of template DNA of A. tritici for both nematode isolates on both wheat cultivars. The bands of both amplification products of PCR reactions were visualized in position about 800 bp on agarose gel, which indicates that both isolates of A. tritici belong to the same race. On the other hand, no nucleotide differences were observed between the two nematode isolations, as revealed by the sequence alignment of DNA of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and phylogenetic tree, which emphasizes at the same time that both nematode isolates are of the same genetic structure or have the same identity and confirms their belonging to the same nematode race.
Zsolt Székely-Varga, Timea Hitter Buru, Alex-Peter Cotoz, Erzsébet Buta and Maria Cantor
“Tradition and Modernity”, two aspects the University of Agriculture Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca lives by. The current paper presents a case study analysis of a landscape architecture design, combining tradition with modernity. Through the use of traditional Transylvanian patterns, this concept design is based on the use of different plant species and flowering periods. It measures 500 sq. m and is situated on the campus of the UASVM. Today, there is an increasing interest for bulbs and Lavandula species in landscaping. This is the reason why Lavandula is popular in the design concept presented below. Designed with the use of Romanian traditional patterns and specific colours, two types of ornamental plants are combined: perennials and bulbous plants. This proposal attempts to provide a way of approaching the Romanian landscape, specific to the region it belongs to.
Tünde Szmatona-Túri, Diána Vona-Túri, László Urbán, András Weiperth and Gábor Magos
The main objective of this paper is to report the effect of shrub removal, mowing, and grazing as grassland management methods on spider diversity. Sampling was conducted in the Mátra Mountains and four disturbed main road verges in Hungary. Shrub removal and mowing positively affected diversity. Moderate grazing caused increasing diversity, but intensive grazing reduced spider diversity. The intensity of mowing maintenance had various effects on diversity depending on the landscape impact. It is worth reducing the intensity of the application of mosaic treatments and considering the long-term maintenance of edge habitats in these areas.
A country’s economic situation, its political establishment, and the prevailing environmental conditions have a significant impact on the institutional system required for efficient environmental protection measures. During our work, we reviewed the institutional changes and legislation regarding environmental protection which have occurred over the past 20 years as well as the role of changes in the government. In summary, it can be concluded that significant changes occurred during the past two decades. The names, organizational structures, operations, and scopes of ministries have undergone regular changes over the years. In Hungary, there has been no separate ministry of the environment since 2010, and this area is regulated only on the state secretary level. In contrast, in the V4 countries and the Carpathian Basin, environmental protection is regulated on the ministry level.