Mantle vegetation includes plant communities dominated mostly by shrubs and occurs in habitats where the typical tree layers meet difficulties to evolve. This study was conducted in three areas of Bulgaria – Western Balkan Range, Western Sredna Gora Mt. and the Fore-Balkan. Numerical classification and ordination were performed by PC-ORD and JUICE software packages. Diagnostic species were determined by calculating the Phi-coefficient. Two associations and one plant community of the Berberidion alliance were recognized – Corno-Ligustretum Horvat ex Trinajstić ---amp--- Z. Pavletić 1991, Pruno spinosae-Ligustretum vulgaris Tüxen 1952 and Elytrigia repens-Crataegus monogyna community. The latter considered as a successional stage of shrub encroachment into the grasslands. Its species composition is very close to that of the ass. Corno-Ligustretum. The species composition of ass. Pruno-Ligustretum represents a mixture of species characteristic for dry and mesic grasslands, fringe and forest vegetation. The Crataego-Prunetea class is still poorly studied in Bulgaria and much more data from all regions in the country have to be collected.
Echinophora spinosa L., a perennial member of the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family is known to be native to southern Europe and Algeria. More recently this taxon was collected from Tabarka (Jendouba-Kroumiria, North-Western of Tunisia) and is reported as a new species for the terrestrial flora of Tunisia. It is described and illustrated and notes on its ecology and phytosociological remarks are provided.
Based on hierarchical classification of more than 300 phytosociological relevés of basophilic black and (or) Scots pine communities in the Southern, Eastern and Southeastern Alps we described a new association Rhodothamno chamaecisti-Pinetum sylvestris, into which we classify stands that have until now been discussed in the framework of subassociations Fraxino orni-Pinetum nigrae pinetosum sylvestris, laricetosum deciduae and (partly) caricetosum humilis, and are floristically slightly similar also to certain forms of the association Erico-Pinetum sylvestris. The stands of the new association are for now classified into Natura 2000 habitat type Southeastern-European Pinus sylvestris forests (91R0), within it we propose a special habitat subtype Southeastern-Alpine Scots pine forests, and into a new forest site type Southeastern-Alpine Scots pine forest. At the contact of the Julian and Dinaric Alps we described a new subassociation Genisto januensis-Pinetum sylvestris campanuletosum cespitosae, which comprises also a Natura 2000 species Primula carniolica.
The study presents a floristic-sociological classification of the forest vegetation of Kyiv urban area. We identified 18 syntaxa within 7 classes, 7 orders, 8 alliances, and 3 new associations were allocated (Aristolochio clematitis-Populetum nigrae, Galio aparines-Aceretum negundi, Dryopterido carthusianae-Pinetum sylvestris). We analyzed vegetation data using quantitative approaches of ordination and phytoindication. Considering many relevés of transitional nature in the collected data on urban forests, the clustering algorithm of DRSA (Distance-Ranked Sorting Algorithm) was applied to classify vegetation matrix. Large-scale comparative floristic analysis of syntaxa from different regions and countries have been conducted and summarized in differentiating tables.
The Central Anatolian vegetation has diverse site conditions and small-scale plant diversity. For this reason, identification of plant communities is important for understanding their ecology and nature conservation. This study aims to contribute the syntaxonomical classification of the Central Anatolian vegetation. The study area is situated among Güzelyurt, Narköy, and Bozköy (Niğde) in the east of Aksaray province of Central Anatolia in Turkey. The vegetation data were collected using the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet and classified using TWINSPAN. The ecological characteristics of the units were investigated with Detrended Correspondence Analysis. Three new plant associations were described in the study. The steppe association was included in Onobrychido armenae-Thymetalia leucostomi and Astragalo microcephali-Brometea tomentelli. The forest-steppe association was classified under Quercion anatolicae in Quercetea pubescentis. The riparian association is the first poplar-dominated one described in Turkey and, classified under Alno glutinosae-Populetea albae and its alliance Populion albae.
Markéta Šantrůčková, Jiří Dostálek and Tomáš Frantík
Extensive tall-trunk orchards, an important element of the central European landscape since the Middle Ages, conserve potential for the future regarding their biodiversity, land use policy and agricultural value. For these reasons, extensive tall-trunk orchards are interesting with regard to nature conservation. Once the management of these low-productivity vegetation sites ceases, the habitat is threatened by successive overgrowth by shrub vegetation. Taking abandoned tall-trunk cherry orchards with dry/mesophilous grassland undergrowth in the locality of Kaňk as an example, the degree of colonization of orchards by woody species and differences in the structure of vegetation cover in different periods after abandonment were monitored. The results showed that the cover of cherry trees in orchards abandoned before 1990 was approximately 30% lower than in orchards abandoned after 2000. The cover of the herb layer in orchards abandoned before 1990 was approximately 60% lower than in orchards abandoned after 2000. The species diversity of orchards abandoned before 1990 was statistically significantly lower than that of orchards abandoned after 2000. The total cover of all species in habitat in areas of medieval ore extraction was approximately 50% lower than that in land originally used for farming.
Zahir Muhammad, Naila Inayat, Abdul Majeed, Rehmanullah, Hazrat Ali and Kaleem Ullah
Crop plants have defined roles in agricultural production and feeding the world. They are affected by several environmental and biological stresses, which range from soil salinity, drought, and climate change to exposure to diverse plant pathogens. These stresses pose risk to agricultural sustainability. To avoid the increasing biotic and abiotic pressure on crop plants, agrochemicals are extensively used in agriculture for attaining desirable yield and production of crops. However, the use of agrochemicals is also challenging the integrity of ecosystems. Thus, to maintain the integrity of ecosystem, sustainable measures for elevated crop production are required. Allelopathy, a process of chemical interactions between plants and other organisms, could be used in the management of several biotic and abiotic stresses if the basic mechanisms of the phenomena and plants with allelopathic potentials are known. Allelopathy has a promising future for its application in agriculture for natural weed management, improving soil health and suppressing plant diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss the importance of allelopathy in agriculture and its role in sustainability with a specific focus on weed management and crop protection.
Mikołaj Kaczmarski, Michał Michlewicz and Piotr Tryjanowski
Antagonistic interactions between insects and amphibians are the subject of many scientific articles, mostly concerning amphibian predation on insect, but many fewer examples exist of the opposite situation. In this article we review available information from the literature and add our own observations collected during amphibian pitfall trap monitoring in 2012–2016 in Western Poland, as well as discuss potential conservation implications of observed behavior. We identified a total of 29 cases involving 94 individual ants attacking four species of Anura, Rana temporaria, Pelophylax esculentus complex, Bufo bufo, and Pelobates fuscus, and biting their back, cloaca, armpits, or hind legs. Bites were inflicted by three ant species: Myrmica rubra, Lasius fuliginosus, and Formica polyctena. The number of ants found on an amphibian was positively and significantly correlated with its body length. To date, direct damage by ants on amphibians was reported mainly from the tropics in general predation accident. However, as we document here, it is probably a more common phenomenon, especially in some ecological traps or during pitfall trapping, which is a common method to mitigate road mortality of frogs and toads.
Baigo Hamuna, John Dominggus Kalor and Adinda Intan Rachmadani
The aim of this study was to find out the condition of coral reef coverage and the presence of Chaetodontidae fish in coastal waters of Jayapura City, Indonesia. The observation of coral reef coverage was performed using point intercept transect (PIT) method; meanwhile the observation of the presence of Chaetodontidae fish used visual census method. The result of this study described that coral reef condition in the study site was in severely damage (live coral 0%) in the DOK II site at 6 m depth, moderately damage (live coral 32.00% ± 2.13% to 42.00% ± 13.18%) in Kayu Pulo Island and the DOK II at 3 m depth, and good condition (live coral 56.00% ± 7.48% to 60.00% ± 5.55%) in the Tanjung Kayu Batu. There were 9 Chaetodontidae fish species from Chaetodon genus, Forcipiger genus, and Heniochus genus. The number of Chaetodontidae fish was 95, of which Heniochus acuminatus was the most dominant, as many as 46 individuals.
Djilali Tahri, Fatiha Elhouiti, Mohamed Ouinten and Mohamed Yousfi
Modeling the distribution of Rhanterium adpressum, an endemic species from southwestern Algeria, and the interactions of soil’s chemical properties with the variability of chemical composition of its essential oils makes the objective of this study. Obtained MaxEnt model (AUC = 0.98) showed that the general distribution of genus Rhanterium established mainly by the contribution of eight bioclimatic variables derived from temperature and precipitation (90.5%). Projection of the model in future conditions until 2070 reveals that the habitats of this species will be very affected by climate changes. The analysis of 9 soil samples shows a sandy (77–96%), alkaline, and calcareous character with an electrical conductivity between 0.2 and 1.8 dS/m at 20°C. The chemical composition of terpenoids families during a period of 5 months was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (70–90%) followed by oxygen monoterpenes (4.5–9.2%), hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (1.6–9.9%), and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.3–7.2%). The variation of this composition in relation with phenological cycle and physicochemical properties of the soil was discussed.