The aim of our study was evaluation of potential antioxidant effects of marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract and assessment of its in vitro impact on the selected quality parameters of bovine spermatozoa. Marigold is medicinal herb from the family Asteraceae native to southern Europe, and it commonly used in pharmacology and medicine. Its well-known positive properties include antioxidant, antibacterial, antiflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, antihelmintic and wound-healing activities. In this study, the flower extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which identified especially phenolic acids (rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids) and polyphenols (rutin, kaempferol, resveratrol, quercetin and apigenin). These substances are known for their antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative stress. For our experiments, 10 samples of semen from sexually mature Holstein bulls were collected on a single day by using an artificial vagina, diluted in physiological saline solution and exposed to solutions with different concentration of marigold flower extract (75, 150 and 300 µg/mL). Selected quality parameters (motility, mitochondrial activity, production of reactive oxygen species – ROS, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation – LPO) were analyzed after 0, 2 and 24 hours of in vitro culture. The motility evaluation was performed by using the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) method. This method revealed that 75 and 150 µg/mL extract had positive effects and increased the motility (P<0.01) and mitochondrial activity (P<0.0001) of bovine spermatozoa compared to the control group following 2 and 24 hours. This phenomenon was observed also in case of ROS production, protein oxidation and LPO. Marigold extract concentrations of 75 and 150 µg/mL decreased the levels of ROS, protein oxidation and damage to the membranes caused by LPO compared to the control group (P<0.05; P<0.01) at time 2 and 24 hours. At the same time, 300 µg/mL extract exhibited positive, although less significant, effects compared to 75 and 150 µg/mL extracts. The data acquired from our study confirm that 75 and 150 µg/mL of marigold flower extract have positive effects on the motility and mitochondrial activity of bovine spermatozoa, and decrease ROS generation, LPO and protein oxidation in spermatozoa. Based on our results, the flower extract from marigold could be used for protection against oxidative stress in in vitro cultures of male gametes.
The common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. 1758) is an allochtonous game species of great importance to the hunting sector in Serbia. Growing concerns over a decline in its population raise issues about the proper management and hunting of common pheasants. As this research tends to identify the importance of common pheasants to Serbian hunters, the present study is based on a mixed research model combining traditional analyses with social studies on Serbian hunters. The data utilized have been collected from the annual management plans of 272 hunting grounds across Serbia and the interviews with 377 hunters. The results obtained suggest that there are significant differences between the analyzed variables in the management plans examined, which indicates that the pheasant hunting management in Serbia is not harmonized. However, the social studies conducted identify the common pheasant as the most hunted and popular game species with Serbian hunters. Accordingly, the common pheasant hunting and management in Serbia has to be improved in order to meet the hunters’ expectations and ensure their satisfaction.
The apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) possesses a number of health-promoting properties. The main beneficial effects of apple fruits on human health are associated with the antioxidant properties of components synthesising in apple fruits during their growth and development. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are such components that contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity of fruits, thus enhancing their health properties. The purpose of this study is to compare the antioxidant properties (namely antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents) of the ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ apple cultivars, grown under optimal growing conditions in the Goražde area. Ascorbic acid contents were estimated using the 2.6-dichlorophenolindophenol titration method, whereas total phenolics were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Furthermore, total flavonoids were determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, whereas the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay was used to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the apple fruits examined. The average values of the ascorbic acid, the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, and the total antioxidant capacity of the ‘Idared’ apples under consideration were 8.09 mg 100 g−1, 34.56 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 12.62 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 323.28 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1of fresh weight, respectively. The average values of the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity of the ‘Braeburn’ apples examined were as follows: 8.89 mg 100 g−1, 33.4 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 13.56 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 367.01 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1 of fresh weight, respectively. The analyses performed indicate that the differences recorded in the parameter values between the apple cultivars ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ were statistically non-significant. A correlation data analysis confirmed that phenolic compounds are the carriers of the antioxidant activity of apples.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of antibiotic diluent additives on the motility and morphological integrity of diluted fresh boar semen during a six-day storage period. A total of 60 insemination doses, originating from two Landrace boars, were examined and allocated to control (C, n=30, diluted with BTS) and experimental groups (E, n=30, diluted with BTS upon antibiotic addition). The treatment applied exerted positive effects on the preservation of progressive motility, percentage of live sperm and HOS test results (70.24 vs. 66.53%, 71.54 vs. 69.77%, 67.35 vs. 64.17% and 64.10 vs. 54.26%;91.15 vs. 90.02%, 88.38 vs. 85.55%, 81.50 vs. 76.13% and 74.53 vs. 68.72%; and 93.35 vs. 92.40%, 91.04 vs. 88.02 %, 84.67 vs. 78.15% and 77.27 vs. 69.44% HOS+ sperm for the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 6th day of storage, respectively). The results obtained indicate that the treatment applied has a favourable effect on preserving the quality parameters of diluted fresh boar semen during storage, resulting most likely from a reduction of bacterial contamination.
The housefly Musca domestica is a cosmopolitan insect nuisance pest, also known as a carrier of numerous pathogens both to humans and animals. Animal farms, as a very important source of house flies, simultaneously allow for all stages of their development. Having vast quantities of constantly present manure, pig units represent perfect environment for house fly breeding. This fact, coupled with the known resistance to majority of available insecticides, creates difficulties in house fly control. The present study was performed to evaluate different types of monitoring methods for indoor use: (a) spot deposit records on the cardboard; (b) fly trappings by: glue coated cardboard; (c) sticky fly strips; (d) yellow sticky cards; (e) visual records of flies on the cardboard. This study provided a clear differentiation of efficacy/usefulness of the tested methods for various house fly densities. In animal breeding units or other areas with very abundant fly population, less sensitive methods (traps are less efficient) should be selected. For these circumstances, glued cardboard or yellow sticky cards should be chosen. The “more sensitive” methods, spot cards and sticky fly strips, should be used for lower abundance of the fly population. Except for this purpose, these highly sensitive methods should be selected also in the areas where the flies should not be tolerated at any density. Although the levels of the observed fly activity significantly differ from each other, in the majority of cases they depict the similar trend of the population dynamics and relative density. The only exception to the rule was the visual method, which could not reflect the changes in the population density in the current study.
Over the past few decades, private label brands have been gaining market share in numerous retail outlets. This paper first elucidates the concepts of brand positioning, brand management and branding itself. The term brand has been used as a means of identifying the same or similar products or services present in the market. The private label brand is a quality tool providing competitive advantage under modern market conditions. The influence of the basic attributes which, knowingly or not, shape the private brands of local cheeses will be emphasized, as well as the influence of other factors affecting the brand positioning. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the role, importance and concept of private label brands in cheese production, which improve the competitive position of cheese producers.
The paper analyzes price parities of important vegetable crops in Serbia in relation to wheat, which has always been a point of reference in price formation of other agricultural products. The analysis was carried out by means of descriptive statistics for the period 1994-2017 for the following vegetable crops: potato, bean, tomato, pepper, onion and cabbage. The method used for forecasting of the price parities for the period 2018-2022 is time series analysis, i.e. ARIMA models. The research results showed that the price parities of bean, tomato and pepper will increase: from 9.1 to 12.3 for bean, from 1.9 to 3.5 for tomato and from 2.3 to 3 for pepper. The price parities for potato (1.4) and cabbage (1.4) will remain practically unchanged, while the price parity of onion will decrease to 1.5.
The aim of this study was to determine the urea level in Saanen goat milk and examine the relationship between milk urea (MU) level and daily milk yield (DMY), milk fat, protein, lactose and solids non-fat (SNF) percentage in dairy goats. The observation was made on 1492 samples of milk control of Saanen goats in the period from March to November 2019. The samples were categorized into four groups based on MU level: I Group 10–20 mg/dl, II group 20.01–30.00 mg/dl, III group 30.01–40.00 mg/dl, IV group >40.01mg/dl. Analyses of raw milk samples were carried out on the FOSS instruments MilcoScan in Laboratory for Milk Quality Control, at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science. Descriptive statistic was done using program Statistica 13.5. The goats on the observed farm were reared in a closed system with balanced diet throughout the whole year. The study showed statistically highly significant differences (P<0.01) among MU groups for all milk parameters. The MU concentration was positively correlated (P<0.01) with fat (%), protein (%), lactose (%) and SNF (%), while it was negatively correlated only with DMY (kg).
The use of insects as “novel” and natural feed materials seems to be an attractive alternative protein source for poultry, pigs and fish since more than 80% of their chemical composition (dry weight basis) is crude protein and crude fat content. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine some chemical composition parameters of powdered mealworm larvae, as a potential animal feed as well as human novel food. It was found that the crude protein (55.83%) and crude fat (25.19%) content was predominant, as well as that the content of nitrogen-free extract was low. Coincided with the high protein content, the levels of the most important amino acids were found to be considerable, especially lysine (3.18%) and threonine (1.34%). Crude fibre content was 7.15%, while ash was 4.84%. The samples were found to be rich in most nutritive elements, especially phosphorus (1.06%) and potassium (1.12%) in terms of macroelements, and zinc (138.2 mg/kg) in terms of microelements. Based on our research and other experimental results, it can be concluded that meals from the insects originating from the order Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae (mealworms) may be successfully used as feed material in diets of livestock animals, especially poultry.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the current state and the achieved development of organic production in the countries of the region and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Serbia has significant potential for production of organic food, mostly due to its favourable climatic conditions. The comparative analysis in this paper includes the analysis of the areas under organic production, the number of organic producers and the development of organic food markets. Starting from the fact that organic production is still not sufficient in the countries of the region, the aim of this paper is to determine the prospects of organic production and appropriate measures to be taken in order to intensify this type of production in the Republic of Serbia and the neighbouring countries.