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Open access

Gulbuz Sezgin, Guler Ozturk, Rana Turkal and Burcu Caykara

Summary

Background

Vitamin D regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and it is essential for bone formation. Several factors can affect vitamin D levels in plasma. In present study we compare vitamin D levels of outpatients, who admit to Maltepe University Hospital between 2011 and 2013 and had vitamin D measurements regarding gender, age, and season.

Methods

Hospital records were evaluated to identify the outpatients with vitamin D levels and their gender, age, and vitamin D levels and the seasons of measurements were recorded.

Results

Data of 4860 subjects (74% female) were analyzed and 69.2% were between 18–64 years old. Vitamin D levels were as follows: 43.1% ≤ 10 ng/mL, 31.9% between 10 ng/mL and 20 ng/mL, 16.1% between 20 ng/mL and 30 ng/mL, and only 8.9% ≥ 30 ng/mL. The number of females with vitamin D levels < 10 ng/mL was significantly higher than that of males, while the number of males with vitamin D levels between 10 ng/mL and 20 ng/mL was significantly higher than that of females (P = 0.001) for each of the individuals, 6.2% and 11.1% had sufficient levels in winter and summer, respectively. Overall, it was observed that 6.6% of individuals between 18–44 years old, 8.2% of individuals between 45–64 years old and 10.3% of individuals over 65 years old had vitamin D levels > 30 ng/mL.

Conclusions

The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in outpatients of Maltepe University Hospital in Marmara region was 75% (< 20 ng/mL).

Open access

Mina Radovic, Suzana Bojic, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljevic, Visnja Lezaic, Biljana Milicic, Milos Velinovic, Radmila Karan and Sanja Simic-Ogrizovic

Summary

Background

Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) frequently occurs in patients assessed as low-risk for developing CSA-AKI. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) and lactate are promising biomarkers of CSA-AKI but have not yet been explored in low-risk patients.

Aim

To evaluate urinary NGAL (uNGAL), KIM-1 and lactate as biomarkers of CSA-AKI in patients with low-risk for developing CSA-AKI.

Methods

This prospective, observational study included 100 adult elective cardiac surgery patients assessed as low-risk for developing CSA-AKI. UNGAL, KIM-1 and lactate were measured preoperatively, at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 3, 12, 24 and 48 h later.

Results

Fifteen patients developed CSA-AKI. Patients with CSA-AKI had significantly higher lactate but similar uNGAL and KIM-1 levels compared to patients without CSA-AKI. Unlike uNGAL and KIM-1, postoperative lactate was good biomarker of CSA-AKI with the highest odds ratio (OR) 2.7 [1.4–4.9] 24 h after CPB. Peak lactate concentration ≥ 4 mmol/L carried dramatically higher risk for developing CSA-AKI (OR 6.3 [1.9–20.5]).

Conclusions

Unlike uNGAL and KIM-1, postoperative lactate was significant independent predictor of CSA-AKI with the highest odds ratio 24 h after CPB.

Open access

Dragana Milosevic and Violeta Lukic Panin

Summary

Background

Diabetes mellitus (DM) with its micro- and macrocomplications is the leading global epidemic of the 21st century. The aim of the research is to determine possible changes in the complete blood count (CBC) parameters depending on glycemic controlin patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

The study included a total of 178 patients with T2DM, both gender over the age of 40 years, from the Health Care Center »Dr Milorad Mika Pavlović« Indjija, Serbia. To notice the possible correlation between the CBC parameters and glucose control in T2DM, the subjects were divided in two groups with HbA1c ≤ 7% and with HbA1c>7%. We analysed CBC parameters, parameters of glycoregulation, lipid status using standard biochemical methods, performed anthropometric measurements and collected patients data by questionnaire and electronic patient card.

Results

There was statistical difference between HbA1c groups for PMDW (p=0.045), HDL (p=0.0067). Using univariate linear regression it is shown that PCT was correlated with WBC (p=0.0005), neutrophils (p=0.046), monocytes (p=0.003); MPM was associated with MPV (p=0.0005); MPC (p=0.0005), PDW (P=0.0005), GLU0 (p=0.034), HDL-C (p=0.005); PMDW was correlated with HbA1c% (p=0.049), GLU0 (p=0.013), HDL-C (p=0.001), BW (p=0.043) in all patients.

Conclusions

Based on our study results it may be concluded that some of the parameters of CBC could be useful tool in following glycemic control of diabetics.

Open access

Samar Damiati

Summary

Background

Although vitamin D in not a traditional marker for cardiovascular and renal diseases, several studies have proposed a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and these diseases due to the effect of vitamin D on endothelial function. Asymmetric and symmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA and SDMA, respectively) are endogenous markers of endothelial dysfunction, and are considered as future markers for the assessment of cardiovascular and renal diseases. The present study investigated the association of kidney function tests (urea and creatinine) and dimethylarginine toxins (ADMA and SDMA) in women with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Indeed, sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone) were analyzed in the participants.

Methods

Women were divided into two groups: premenopausal women (younger than 50 years) and postmenopausal women (older than 50 years). Urea, creatinine, estrogen, testosterone, ADMA, and SDMA levels were analyzed when vitamin D level was deficient or insufficient in the participants.

Results

The premenopausal women group showed no significant correlations between dimethylarginine toxins and renal failure tests or sex hormones. In the elderly (postmenstrual) women group, only SDMA was significantly correlated with urea and creatinine, while both ADMA and SDMA were not correlated with sex hormones.

Conclusions

Although ADMA and SDMA are promising candidates of endothelial dysfunction and are increased in menopause and aging, no direct link between ADMA and further progression of renal failure was observed in women with low vitamin D levels. In contrast, a possible direct correlation between SDMA and renal dysfunction was noticed, but only in an age-dependent manner.

Open access

Nada Majkić-Singh

Summary

During 15th Belgrade Symposium for Balkan Region (April 11 and 12, 2019, Belgrade, www.dmbj.org.rs) Society of Medical Biochemists of Serbia organized scientific and professional program with aim to discuss laboratory medicine topics of mutual interest for all the countries of the Region, such as:

  • Laboratory Medicine Planning and Organization

  • Type of Medical Laboratory and Strategy

  • Laboratory Medicine Management

  • Leadership Skills

  • Accreditation and Competences

  • Environmental Health and Safety

  • Laboratory Standards in Balkan Countries

  • Experiences of Young Scientists

  • Students Achievements

Together with the countries from Balkan Region the countries from our neighborhood as Italy, Austria, Hungary, Cyprus and Israel have been invited to discuss this important topics and exchange the mutual experiances with aim to improve the laboratory medicine in our countries and to help our colleagues to improve daily laboratory practice in our countries. Also participation in the Symposium took colleagues from France and Belgium.

Open access

Dragana Popovic, Katarina Lalic, Aleksandra Jotic, Tanja Milicic, Jelena Bogdanovic, Maja Đorđevic, Sanja Stankovic, Veljko Jeremic and Nebojsa M. Lalic

Summary

Background

We analyzed cardiovascular inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6)), haemostatic (homocysteine) risk markers in lean and obese patients at admission and acute hyperglicemic crisis (AHC) resolving, involving diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS).

Methods

In that context, we included group A: N = 20 obese, B: N=20 lean patients with DKA; C: N = l0 obese, D: N=10 lean patients with HHS; E: N = 15 obese, F: N=15 lean controls. CRP IL-6, homocysteine were determined by ELISA.

Results

Our results showed that CRP IL-6, and homocysteine levels decreased in all groups: (A: p<0.001; B: p<0.001, C: p<0.05; D: p<0.001 mg/L), (A: p<0.001 B: p<0.001, C: p<0.001, D: p<0.01 pg/mL), (A: p<0.001, B: p <0.001; C: p<0.05, D: p=0.001 μmol/L), respectively, at resolving AHC. However, CRP persisted higher (p<0.001, p<0.01), IL-6 lower (p<0.05, p<0.001), while homocysteine levels turned out to be similar to controls.

Conclusions

AHC is associated with increased inflammatory and hemostatic cardiovascular risk markers. Also, insulin therapy in AHC has had more pronounced favorable effect on IL-6 and homocystein than on CRP

Open access

Marko Baralić, Voin Brković, Vesna Stojanov, Sanja Stanković, Nataša Lalić, Petar Đurić, Ljubica Đukanović, Milorad Kašiković, Milan Petrović, Marko Petrović, Milan Stošović and Višnja Ležaić

Summary

Background

Vascular calcification (VC) is highly prevalent in dialysis (HD) patients, and its mechanism is multifactorial. Most likely that systemic or local inhibitory factor is overwhelmed by promoters of VC in these patients. VC increased arterial stiffness, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the association of VC and myocardial remodeling and to analyze their relationship with VC promoters (fibroblast growth factor 23-FGF23, Klotho, intact parathormon-iPTH, vitamin D) in 56 prevalent HD patients (median values: age 54 yrs, HD vintage 82 months).

Methods

Besides routine laboratory analyzes, serum levels of FGF 23, soluble Klotho, iPTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; pulse wave velocity (PWV); left ventricular (LV) mass by ultrasound; and VCs score by Adragao method were measured.

Results

VC was found in 60% and LV concentric or eccentric hypertrophy in 50% patients. Dialysis vintage (OR 1.025, 95%CI 1.007–1.044, p=0.006) FGF23 (OR 1.006, 95% CI 0.992–1.012, p=0.029) and serum magnesium (OR 0.000, 95%CI 0.000–0.214, p=0.04) were associated with VC. Changes in myocardial geometry was associated with male sex (beta=-0.273, 95% CI -23.967 1.513, p=0.027), iPTH (beta 0.029, 95%CI -0.059–0.001, p=0.027) and vitamin D treatment (beta 25.49, 95%CI 11.325–39.667, p=0.001). Also, patients with the more widespread VC had the highest LV remodeling categories. PWV was associated patient’s age, cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, LV mass (positively) and serum calcium (negatively), indicating potential link with atherosclerotic risk.

Conclusions

Despite to different risk factors for VC and myocardial remodeling, obtained results could indicate that risk factors intertwine in long-term treatment of HD patients and therefore careful and continuous correction of mineral metabolism disorders is undoubtedly of the utmost importance.

Open access

Wei Zhang, Junlei Chen, Xinxia Li, Yuwen Wang and Jiutong Li

Summary

Background

To establish a fast and simple quantitative method for detection of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) in serum based on a background fluorescence quenching immunochromatographic assay.

Methods

A detection card based on the double-antibody sandwich double-antibody method with background fluorescence quenching was developed for quantitative measurement of H-FABP in serum. The optimal concentrations of control for coating the test and control lines were determined as well as the concentrations of gold-labeled antibodies used in preparing the detection system. The detection method for H-FABP in serum was established and validated using real-world clinical samples.

Results

The optimal concentrations of labeling antibody and coating antibody were 5.0 μg/mL and 1.0 mg/mL, respectively. The test card had a sensitivity of 1.15 ng/mL over a linear concentration range of 0–100 ng/mL. Based on three batches prepared for testing the card, the relative standard deviation (RSD) within batches was less than 15% without a significant difference (P=0.942). The detection method was tested against common interfering substances in serum, such as bilirubin, triglyceride and serum anticoagulants ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), heparin, and sodium citrate, and no significant cross-reaction was detected. The test method was further validated with 50 clinical serum samples, and the test results were comparable with standard reference detection methods with good correlation (R=0.95).

Conclusion

Our study presents a new method with strong specificity and sensitivity for the detection of H-FABP in serum, which could promote H-FABP detection in a broad range of applications.

Open access

Emad K. Ahmed, Shaimaa A. Fahmy, Heba Effat and Abdel Hady Abdel Wahab

Summary

Background

To date few reports have pointed out the role of circulating miRNAs in discriminating metastatic liver tumors from primary hepatocellular (HCC) tumors. Such discrimination will have significant therapeutic and prognostic implications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential value of a panel of HCC-related circulating miRNAs (miR-142, miR-182, miR-200a, mir-210, miR-211, miR-302b, miR-324, miR-338, miR-340 and miR-1246) as noninvasive biomarkers for discriminating primary HCC from metastatic tumors in the liver.

Methods

The expression level of the selected miRNAs was quantified by quantitative real time PCR in 33 patients with HCC, 22 patients with metastatic tumors in the liver, and 30 healthy volunteers as control. Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the difference in miRNAs expression between primary and metastatic liver tumors and to study the associations between their relative expression levels and the clinicopathological factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of the individual miRNAs.

Results

Statistical analyses revealed a differential expression in the level of serum miR-210 and miR-1246 between the two groups of patients. The sensitivity and specificity of miR-210, for differentiating HCC from metastatic malignancies in the liver were found to be 73.7% and 64.28%, respectively. Whilst, of miR-1246 were 72.2% and 67.8%, respectively. In addition, the differential expression of the two miRNAs was also found to be associated with clinicopathological parameters in the two studied groups.

Conclusions

Serum miR-210 and miR-1246 have some diagnostic value for discriminating patients with metastatic tumors to patients with primary HCC

Open access

Miodrag Dragoj, Jasna Bankovic, Ana Podolski-Renic, Sonja Stojkovic Buric, Milica Pesic, Nikola Tanic and Tijana Stankovic

Summary

Background

C-Myc is one of the major cellular oncogenes overexpressed in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Its deregulated expression is necessary but not sufficient for malignant transformation. We evaluated expression of MYC gene in NSCLC patients and its association with alterations in the genes previously identified to be related to NSCLC pathogenesis, PHACTR3 and E2F4.

Methods

We analyzed MYC gene expression by qRT-PCR in 30 NSCLC patients’ samples and paired normal lung tissue. MYC expression was further statistically evaluated in relation to histopathological parameters, PHACTR3 and E2F4 gene alterations and survival. Alterations in aforementioned genes were previously detected and identified based on AP-PCR profiles of paired normal and tumor DNA samples, selection of DNA bands with altered mobility in tumor samples and their characterization by the reamplification, cloning and sequencing.

Results

MYC expression was significantly increased in NSCLC samples and its overexpression significantly associated with squamous cell carcinoma subtype. Most importantly, MYC overexpression significantly coincided with mutations in PHACTR3 and E2F4 genes, in group of all patients and in squamous cell carcinoma subtype. Moreover, patients with jointly overexpressed MYC and altered PHACTR3 or E2F4 showed trend of shorter survival.

Conclusions

Overall, MYC is frequently overexpressed in NSCLC and it is associated with mutated PHACTR3 gene, as well as mutated E2F4 gene. These joint gene alterations could be considered as potential molecular markers of NSCLC and its specific subtypes.