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Csaba Lentner, László Nagy, László Vasa and Szilárd Hegedűs

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to analyse legal and financial dynamics of the self-governance in three countries of the Visegrad Group: the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. The paper explores compliance with the European Charter of Local Self-Government, financial independence and operational features of self-governance. The paper provides an overview of the regulatory environment that was set up for the local government in the Visegrad countries, examines the powers by local government, and the degree of its financial independence. The financial aspects of self-government are compared, and compliance with major fiscal rules is examined.

Open access

Imola Szabó, József Lehota and Róbert Magda

Abstract

This study examines opportunities and hindering factors of box schemes as they have been operating for many years in Hungary, but there are several facts which make it hard for box schemes to become parts of the daily routine in the lives of Hungarian consumers. The first fact is price sensitiveness and willingness to pay price premium for environmentally friendly products, including fresh fruits and vegetables. The second fact is the lack of many products in supplies of box schemes, because fruits and vegetables are seasonal products, but this reason is not always acceptable for customers. The third fact is time wasting, which is a really hindering factor. Finally, interpretation of sustainability is the most important in the eyes of consumers. Our goal is to show how the relation between factors leads to opportunity of growth.

Open access

Zoltán Zéman

Abstract

Strategic planning is generally performed internally and particularly by the organization. Another, lesser discussed issue of non-adequate strategic planning is that corporate management is unable to outline its long term resources without it. Supporting and ensuring the feasibility of individual set-ups of this function, which is probably the most important of all, is without doubt an expanded task of strategic control. From the managers’ point of view, the time spent on managing and controlling the individual tasks is also a type of resource to be managed. The strategy is the subject of development on a regular basis – that is, also an expanded task of strategic control – and managers should always take it into consideration alongside the operational tasks, since the design, development and implementation of strategy are affected by high-risk events of the external environment. The mapping of sustainable development at the microeconomic level is part of corporate social responsibility. Sustainable development requires global thinking and action. This is reflected in the fact that, in their economic decisions, businesses should strive for the economical use of scarce resources, achieve a balance between resource development and preservation, and ensure an appropriate dialogue, the so-called “resource” of stakeholders. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the role of controlling in sustainable development using theoretical modelling.

Open access

Katarzyna Zadros

Abstract

In modern companies, an employee is perceived as a particularly valuable asset whose importance increases as the company enters the path of sustainable development. This situation means that a new role is assigned to the employee, he becomes an element of human capital, or the intellectual capital of the organization; he is a stakeholder. What does this actually mean for companies and how can this situation be assessed from the employee‘s perspective? Does the concept of sustainable development influence changes in human resources management, and if so, in which areas are these changes visible in particular? Searching for the answers to these questions will be the goal of the article presented below.

Open access

Ľubomír Gurčík, Viktor Porhajaš, Dávid Červený and Zuzana Bajusová

Abstract

The paper discusses economic evaluation of the sea buckthorn cultivation as well as production of final products by processing the fruits of this economically interesting woody plant. The input data of the economic “ex post” analysis is based on the authentic data of the agricultural entity operating in Slovakia. Recently, we have been expanding the growing area of sea buckthorn to which we are contributing by educating and promoting the products from this medicinal plant. Sea buckthorn is an extraordinary healing plant called the “lemon tree of the north“. One sea buckthorn fruit will cover the daily dose of vitamin C. Even the ancient Greeks knew about the effects of sea buckthorn, which formed the basis for its Latin name – Hippophae rhamnoides – which means a shining horse. The sea buckthorn’s name was associated with a beautiful shiny coat of horses grazing on the plant. It is one of the world‘s most nutrient-rich plants because sea buckthorn areas have a unique composition and chemical analyses have confirmed that more than 190 substances are the best-ever independent source of natural clustering. These substances contain 10 different vitamins, 18 amino acids, 24 minerals and trace elements. Sea buckthorn has a high content of mono and polyunsaturated essential acids (omega 3, 6, 7 and 9) and phytosterols. It contains vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and another 40 carotenoids. The fruits contain all B vitamins. For these reasons, we consider buckthorn to be an exceptional plant that has the potential to expand its cultivation in all production areas. In the SR, the cultivation of sea buckthorn is based on small gardeners, on larger areas; the cultivation of this healing plant is a unique matter. An advertising campaign that promotes sea buckthron products has been launched by the pharmaceutical industry and its distribution networks. This increased interest creates a precondition for the expansion of the cultivation in the Slovak Republic.

Open access

Dóra Nagyné Demeter and Gábor Koncz

Abstract

The survival of special Hungarian settlement forms (homesteads), due to the increasing urbanization phenomena, raises more and more questions. Are these forms of settlements of special, natural, landscape and cultural value? Or are the empty spaces that have lost their original function, which are relocating to the growing urban agglomerations? In our research, we sought to find out what kind of vision the Hungarian ‘farm’ could have on the 21st century Hungarian Great Plain. On the one hand, our empirical research focused on a homestead survey in the Bács-Kiskun County, where we surveyed the general condition of the farms, and on the other hand we carried out an opinion survey of the population. We have tried to compare the opinion of the urban population and the vision of the people living on the farms, to identify new functions that will fit in with the European rural development policy, financial and professional support in the future. Our results show that diversified developments can help the survival and development of homesteads.

Open access

Ondrej Beňuš and Dominika Čeryová

Abstract

Renewable energy production is one of key actions undertaken by the EU to lower its dependency on energy imports from third countries. Renewable energy is not competitive compared to fossil fuels at this moment. Under these circumstances, there is a need for an effective legal regulation. The EU has set main targets relating renewable energy use in the directive (EU) 2018/2001. Slovak policymakers have recognized these new targets. The main objective of the paper is to examine the latest changes to the Slovak legal regulation of the renewable energy production with focus on electricity production. We analyse changes made by the amendment of the Act No. 309/2009 Coll. and provide a short explanation of new instruments.

Open access

Lucyna Witek

Abstract

The purchasing behaviour in the market of green products is at a low level. Consumers express their concern about the future of the planet and the cleanliness of the environment, but in their conduct they do not take into account ecological criteria. There is a discrepancy between what consumers say and what they really do. A favourable attitude to the idea of environmental protection does not translate into real action. The reasons for this gap have not been sufficiently researched yet. The aim of the research is to identify the causes of attitude-behaviour gap in the market of environmentally friendly products in Poland. To achieve the goal, the desk research and surveys were applied. The research shows that green products are well evaluated by consumers, although the knowledge about them is general and partial. Only 21% of respondents indicate knowledge of the production process, certification and control of environmentally friendly products. A large group of surveyed consumers (43%) shows willingness to pay higher prices for environmentally friendly products. But only one third of respondents (32%) declares trust in such products.

Open access

Janusz Reichel, Agata Rudnicka and Błażej Socha

Abstract

Labour market is getting more and more diverse. Young people have broad spectrum of possibilities to plan and develop their future careers. Future graduates may put attention on different opportunities from huge corporations to local non-governmental organizations. One of still underestimated sectors as a working place is the social enterprise sector. The current debate of the labour market is focusing on the issue of competences needed to meet the needs of a highly competitive labour market. The idea of entrepreneurship is also a focal point for these considerations. The main aim of the paper is to present the analysis of choices for career development among students from non-economic fields of study. The research was conducted among students of non-economics majors in the University of Lodz, Poland. Authors were seeking the answer to the question of whether the social economy organizations are treated as a potential workplace. The main results of the study confirm that the social economy sector is not the priority as a future choice for career development.

Open access

Natalia Głowacka and Ján Gaduš

Abstract

The article reviews the energy potential of microalgae as an alternative raw material for anaerobic digestion. Currently, energy security is one of the main topics among researchers. The amount of generated fossil fuels is limited, it is a question of time when fossil fuels will not continue to be accessible at low cost. There is a need to find an alternative carrier of energy which will replace the fossil fuels in the World. Green microalgae can be proposed as a possible bio raw-material, which can be used as an input material in order to produce energy. Lots of alternative technologies of algae cultivation are currently being developed all over the world. There is a necessity to search for a sensible way to produce algal biomass for bioenergy purposes, while maintaining all requirements involved in environmental and economic issues. The research results presented in the science article show that microalgae biomass is the proper alternative material for biogas production with the method of anaerobic fermentation. We believe that these research results can contribute to the future development of all forms of renewable energy in the Slovak Republic.