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Early Urbanism in Europe

The Trypillia Mega-Sites of the Ukrainian Forest-Steppe

Bisserka Gaydarska

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Margrit Seckelmann

Abstract

In seiner Schrift Das Dilemma des Verwaltungsmannes von 1965 bringt Fritz Morstein Marx, der Verwaltungswissenschaftler wie Verwaltungspraktiker auf beiden Seiten des Atlantiks tätig war, das Problem des Verwaltens folgendermaßen auf den Punkt: Verwalten muss auch immer eine gestalterische Komponente innehaben. Tut es das nicht, kann eine solche Beschränkung auf den bloßen Normvollzug langfristig zu Politikverdrossenheit führen. Jedoch droht der „Verwaltungsmann“ dabei seine Kompetenzen zu überschreiten, weswegen er Nachteile erleiden könnte. Es bieten sich zwei Reaktionen an: Das Verkriechen in ein Mauseloch, wo man in möglichst wenig Kompetenzprobleme gerät - oder aber umgekehrt die Übernahme von Verantwortung, auf die Gefahr hin, negative Konsequenzen zu befürchten. Morstein Marx plädiert für die zweite Lösung, bindet sie aber zugleich in ein Beamtenethos ein.

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Thomas Rohringer

Abstract

This contribution examines the role of trust in disabled veteran welfare in Bohemia during the First World War. It places this concern for disabled veterans’ trust in a wider political context as trust emerged as a specific concern in Cisleithanian political discourses on administrative reform around 1900. In the context of welfare for disabled veterans in Cisleithania, trust gained novel importance. Medical and occupational experts deemed it imperative to gain disabled veterans’ trust to maintain their role as experts and developed specific strategies of emotionally engaging with disabled soldiers to gain their trust. Karl Eger, a military official, emerged as an influential actor in Bohemian welfare for disabled veterans. He propagated a welfare administration based on local welfare boards, which would supposedly possess disabled veterans’ trust. His idea of trust was, however, based on concepts of national communities and he implemented it to re-organize disabled veteran welfare based on nationality.

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Margareth Lanzinger

Abstract

The points of departure for the contribution are the Catholic Church’s prohibition of consanguineous and affinal marriage and the practice of dispensation with a geographic focus on the Diocese of Brixen, which comprised parts of historical Tyrol and Vorarlberg during the period of study. Granting dispensation was and remained an act of grace, even when government regulations began to interfere in administrative procedures in the late 18th century. The amount of dispensation applications regarding close degrees of consanguinity and affinity significantly increased during this time. Emotions were an integral part of these proceedings. Two central areas of interest are: What were the effects of recording emotions in the dispensation paperwork, and how were the ways that emotions were described in writing expressed in social interactions? The hypothesis of this study is that applicants tried using emotions as instruments for expediting their applications on the one hand, and that lower-level clergy used the practice of recording emotions in order to legitimize supporting dispensation applicants on the other hand.

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Arndt Brendecke

Abstract

The essay is dedicated to the idealized emotionlessness of early modern Spanish office holders. It focuses on the so called corregidores, which represented the king and administered justice in major Spanish cities. Their instructions often idealized the total lack of pasiones or at least their complete invisibility. Such a discarding of all affects echoed the ideals of impartial judges, just kings and uninterested clerics and had specific functions, especially in cities with their high density of mutual observation. To live accordingly, that is, with one’s own emotions permanently held in check, required personal aptitude, appropriate age and a process of education and study which should convert certain habits into a ›second nature‹ and thus distinguish the corregidor significantly from the society over which he was to judge. Constantly checked by society however, this second nature would corrupt, if not protected by a rigid and permanent »vigilance over oneself«.

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Robert Garot

Abstract

This article provides a first-hand account of waiting in line to deliver migration documents at an office of the police department known as the Questura in Italy, in 2006. The spectacle of migrants suffering in line day after day, subjected to threats from police and the jostling, complaints and aggression of others in line, provided a stage for the performative realism of the widescale exclusion, criminalization and scapegoating of migrants in Italy at the time. Moreover, migrants’ relations to the state and Italians’ relations to migrants were embodied and felt through the line, marked on bodies and in memories as visceral marginalization.

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Rupert Gaderer

Abstract

At the end of the 18th century, reports were made of unusual and curious legal cases in which the plaintiffs were moved by a self-destructive obsession. These excessive desires expressed themselves in the fact that these people were involved in countless lawsuits and vied in vain for their rights in court. These plaintiffs were people who studied the law obsessively, meticulously filed suit after suit, and continuously troubled civil servants with unjustified legal demands. The Prussian bureaucracy gave these plaintiffs a name: ›Querulanten‹ (from Latin: queri, to complain). This paper deals with the history of these troublemakers, and more particularly, with the goal of understanding the source, development, and the continuing existence of querulency as a connection between media, knowledge, and emotions.

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Robert Bernsee

Abstract

The article deals with the narrative of the ‘cold’ or ‘inhumane bureaucracy’. The author argues that one can already observe this narrative during the early bureaucratisation in Germany. He shows that the perception of a ‘cold bureaucracy’ resulted from conflicts about the legitimacy of administrative practices: The new bureaucratic system clashes with the traditional practices exercised by officials, among them certain gift-giving practices. Those actions were based on a concept of honour, they shaped the emotional practices of the officials. The bureaucratic system reduced the spaces for those emotional practices, because it interdicted traditional practices. Officials argued that this interdiction and the bureaucratic instruments of monitoring and controlling was mistrusting and defamatory to them. Public observers condemned the new administrative system to be ‘cold’ and ‘inhumane’. They demanded more spaces for emotional practices by reallowing traditional actions and re-introducing elements of the old administrative system.

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Jana Osterkamp

Abstract

In 1910 the Crownland Moravia was confidentially granted a 5 million loan by the Viennese government. Moravia was heavily indebted and spent extensive expenditures for schooling, infrastructure and social welfare. The secret loan to Moravia was just one part of the multi-tiered system of fiscal flows in late Imperial Austria that was subject to emotionally heated debates. Since the budgetary power in the regional, transnational and imperial arenas came with determining the political priorities there, negotiations of the budget mirrored conflicting political camps often divided along national lines. On the imperial level, however, the same politicians forged transnational cooperation and new forms of transnational revenue sharing. Utterances of emotions were made more objective the higher the political level the crownland’s leading officials dealt with. The emotional side of fiscal politics, however, can be seen as a driving force in prioritising certain policy fields.

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