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Karolina Kania and Maciej Kałaska

Abstract

Souks have undergone functional and spatial changes in the Moroccan medinas since colonial times due to the tourist activities. The rate of the changes increased at the end of the 20th century because of the expansion of tourism projects. However, there are no publications on the evolution of Moroccan souks in the context of tourism development. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to determine the types of transformations the souks underwent as a result of the dynamic development in this sector of economy. The research focused on two imperial cities: Marrakech and Rabat. Data for analysis was obtained through observations and field interviews in 2014 and by bibliographic query. A retrospective study was carried out which included identification of mechanisms affecting the contemporary organization and physiognomy of the commercial streets. The authors’ work allowed for an identification of development phases of the Moroccan souks under the influence of tourism.

Open access

Jaroslav David and Tereza Klemensová

Abstract

The paper focuses on German forms of place names in Czechia and Slovakia, and Hungarian forms of place names in Slovakia, especially on their revitalization and perception after 1989. This concerns their thematization, which is illustrated on the Czech National Corpus and the Slovak National Corpus materials, and on the 1990s discussions about their restoration. German place-name forms are not considered to be a crucial political topic these days; however, Hungarian forms still represent a conflict potential. German forms in Czechia are only thematized in poetry and fiction books, in order to evoke lasting time and the complicated modern Czech history. On the other hand, they are predominantly used in trade names as a marketing tool aimed at German (localization function) and Czech customers (allusive function). In Slovakia, Hungarian forms are not used in marketing and are not thematized in fiction as a positive value connected with the national history.

Open access

Jolanta Burda, Beata Woskowicz-Ślęzak, Urs Klötzli and Aleksandra Gawęda

Abstract

This study presents the first zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS ages and whole-rock Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd data from exotic blocks (Bugaj and Andrychów) from the Western Outer Carpathians (WOC) flysch. The CL images of the zircon crystals from both samples reveal typical magmatic textures characterized by a well-defined concentric and oscillatory growth zoning. A concordia age 580.1 ± 6.0 Ma of the zircons from the Bugaj sample is considered to represent the crystallization age of this granite. The zircon crystals from the Andrychów orthogneiss yield an age of 542 ± 21 Ma, interpreted as the uppermost Proterozoic, magmatic crystallization age of the granitoid protholith. The initial (at ca. 580 Ma) 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the Bugaj granitoids (0.72997 and 0.72874) are highly radiogenic, pointing to the assimilation of an older, possibly strongly Rb enriched source to the Bugaj melt. The Nd isotope systematics (εNd580 –1.4 and 0.4) also point to a significant contribution of such a distinct mantle source. On the basis of the sequence of magmatic events obtained from U-Pb zircon ages, we suggest that exotic mega blocks deposited to the WOC basins were related to the Brunovistulicum Terrane. They belong to the group of Vendian/Cambrian granitoids representing the latest, posttectonic expression of the Cadomian cycle.

Open access

Jianhui Jin, Yunming Huang, Zhizhong Li, Xuechun Fan, Zhiyong Ling, Zhixing Li and Xiaoju Liu

Abstract

The possible role of environmental change, especially sea level change, as a stimulus for the development of human residence and migration is poorly understood. We investigate this problem by showing a record of sea-level change and coastal transformation based on a sediment core (FN1 core) and a Neolithic site (Pingfengshan site) obtained from the Funing bay on the northeast coast of Fujian, China. The Funing bay coastal area represents a unique feature in China’s Neolithic cultures, comprising a silty beach dominated by quartz-rich sand and several important sites of Huangguashan cultural period.

Samples from FN1 core and Pingfengshan site were taken for grain size ananlyses and for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The blue-light stimulated OSL signals were measured by the single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) protocol to determine the ages of of the samples. Samples from FN1 core yield OSL ages ranging from 49.9 ka to 0.8 ka, providing the systematic geochronological evidence for the sea level change of Funing bay. The comparison of sea level change and Neolithic cultural periods presents a good relationship in coastal area of Fujian, China since about 7 ka before present. In detail, the cultural types of Keqiutou culture and Huangguashan culture all belong to coastal mountainous culture, of which flourishing periods corresponds to the higher sea level periods of mid-late Holocene. Tanshishan culture belongs to estuarine coastal culture, and most sites of this period correspond to a lower sea level located at lower altitudes.

Open access

Tarek Mansouri and Khelifa Abbeche

Abstract

Based on the response of small-scale model square footing, the present paper shows the results of an experimental bearing capacity of eccentrically loaded square footing, near a slope sand bed. To reach this aim, a steel model square footing of (150 mm × 150 mm) and a varied sand relative density of 30%, 50% and 70% are used. The bearing capacity-settlement relationship of footing located at the edge of a slope and the effect of various parameters such as eccentricity (e) and dimensions report (b/B) were studied. Test results indicate that ultimate bearing capacity decreases with increasing load eccentricity to the core boundary of footing and that as far as the footing is distant from the crest, the bearing capacity increases. Furthermore, the results also prove that there is a clear proportional relation between relative densities –bearing capacity. The model test provides qualitative information on parameters influencing the bearing capacity of square footing. These tests can be used to check the bearing capacity estimated by the conventional methods.

Open access

Jarosław Sikorski

Abstract

The paper presents the results of measurements the specific concentration of lead-210 for six peat profiles representing four peat bogs from two regions of Poland and the problem of creating age-depth models. For the construction of age-depth models, it is proposed to use mathematical functions, the best fit to the measured activity. The F-statistics were used as a measure of the match quality. The obtained models are visualized in two ways – showing the age calculated on the basis of direct measurements of activity and indicating points that are the results of the used approximation. Such visualization is important to clearly distinguish the places of the age-depth model that result from the measurements of activity from those places that are the result of the approximation used.

This paper proposes and tests the application of activity modelling for the cores shorter than the range of the lead method. The paper also outlines the limitations and potential dangers related to the interpretation of core dating results i) obtained by using the activity approximation resulting in the smoothing of the age-depth profile, and ii) for the cores of a length smaller than the depth of the presence of the unsupported lead.

Additionally, the proposed models were compared with the models obtained by using SIT, Mod-Age, OxCal, Clam, and Bacon programs.

Open access

Mateusz Zawadzki

Abstract

The subject of the article is reconstructing the routes of postal roads within the borders of the Lublin Voivodeship in the second half of the 18th century. The author has attempted to reconstruct the routes of postal roads, using the retrogression method and a cartographic research method with the use of GIS tools. For this purpose, manuscript cartographic and descriptive sources from the late 18th and 19th centuries were used. Cartographic material from the end of the 18th century in connection with descriptive sources constituted the basis for determining the existence of a postal connection. However, maps from the beginning of the 19th century constituted the basis for the reconstruction of the routes of postal roads. The obtained results allowed for the determination of the role of the Lublin Voivodeship in the old Polish communication system. The research has made us aware of the need for further in-depth work on communication in the pre-partition era (before 1795).

Open access

Jozef Madzin, Dušan Plašienka and Štefan Méres

Abstract

The Pieniny Klippen Belt contains thickening and coarsening upwards synorogenic sedimentary successions witnessing the collision of the Oravic ribbon continent with the Central Carpathian orogenic wedge after the closure of the Vahic Ocean in the Late Cretaceous to Early Palaeogene. The sedimentary record of this event is represented by flysch/wildflysch deposits of the Maastrichtian–Lower/Middle Eocene Jarmuta–Proč Formation. We present results of the provenance study of these deposits, based on the framework petrography, heavy mineral analysis and mineral chemistry. Turbiditic sandstones were classified as quarzolithic to lithic arenites. Lithic fragments are predominantly composed of carbonate rocks and low- to medium-grade metamorphic and occasional mafic volcanic rocks. The heavy mineral association is composed of both first-cycle derived and recycled ultrastable ZTR, garnets and Cr-spinels. The chemistry of the detrital tourmalines and garnets suggests a derivation from various low- to medium-grade metamorphic rocks. High-pyrope garnets, observed in the eastern part of the PKB, which were derived from high-grade granulites and eclogites, represent probably lower crustal complexes exhumed during rifting of the Vahic Ocean. The Cr-spinels show a mixed harzburgitic and lherzolitic provenance. The harzburgitic Cr-spinels might have been recycled from older exotic conglomerates of the Klape Flysch, thereby representing ophiolitic detritus of the Meliata Ocean. The lherzolitic Cr-spinels might represent a new contribution of ophiolitic detritus delivered from the exhumed subcontinental mantle forming the Vahic oceanic floor.