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Open access

Edward Nowak and Waldemar Odziemczyk

Abstract

An optimally designed geodetic network is characterised by an appropriate level of precision and the lowest possible setup cost. Reliability, translating into the ability to detect blunders in the observations and higher certainty of the obtained point positions, is an important network characteristic. The principal way to provide appropriate network reliability is to acquire a suitably large number of redundant observations. This approach, however, faces limitations resulting from the extra cost. This paper analyses the possibility of providing appropriate reliability parameters for networks with moderate redundancy. A common problem in such cases are dependencies between observations preventing the acquisition of the required reliability index for each of the individual observation.

The authors propose a methodology to analyse dependencies between observations aiming to determine the possibility of acquiring the optimal reliability indices for each individual observation or groups of observations. The suggested network structure analysis procedures were illustrated with numerical examples.

Open access

Damian Biel and Tomasz Lipecki

Abstract

Nowadays, the growing popularity of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) allows to obtain a point cloud of many industrial objects along with classic surveying. However, the quality and model’s accuracy in comparison to a real shape seem to be a question, that must be further researched. It is crucial especially for Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis, which, being a part of technical design, estimate the values of construction’s dislocation and deformation. The article describes objects such as headgear with steel support and 4-post headframe with steel sheers. Both supports and sheers were modelled basing on point clouds. All the models were compared to the point cloud. The differences in models’ shape were calculated and the maximal values were determined. The results’ usefulness in FEM analysis was described.

Open access

Przemysław Kuras, Łukasz Ortyl, Tomasz Owerko and Aleksandra Borecka

Abstract

The article presents an example of supplementing geotechnical monitoring with geodetic observations. The experimental flood embankment built within the ISMOP project (Information Technology System of Levee Monitoring) was subjected to continuous monitoring based on built-in measuring sensors. The results of geodetic monitoring used for observation of earth-filled flood embankment subjected to external loads are presented in the paper. The tests were carried out on an experimental flood embankment forming a closed artificial water reservoir. The observations were carried out for two purposes. The first was long-term monitoring, which was aimed to determine the behaviour of the newly built embankment. The second purpose was to check the reaction of the levee to the simulated flood wave, caused by filling and draining the reservoir. In order to monitor the displacements of the earth-filled embankment, it was necessary to develop the proper methodology. For the needs of research works, an appropriate network of 5 reference points and 48 survey markers has been designed and established. The periodic measurements were carried out using precise robotic total station. The stability of the reference frame was each time checked and displacements of survey markers were determined based on it. The final results allow to reveal the reaction of levee to external loads. The displacement values were referred to the course of the filling and draining experiment to indicate the relationship between them. In the field of long-term monitoring the results clearly imply the dominance of displacements outside the reservoir for points located on the embankment, in contrast to points on the crest and foreground, which do not show significant movements. On the other hand, in the field of testing the embankment reaction to the flood wave, obtaining reliable results was possible thanks to high-accuracy geodetic measurements. Small displacement values, often at the level of their determination errors, were averaged for groups of points with the same height of foundation. A sizable number of points allows to perceive some tendencies and the relation between embankment soaking, hence its movement directions can be noticed. During periods when the levee was still saturated with water, slight movements outside the reservoir were revealed. On the other hand, the following period of drying caused movement in the opposite direction.

Open access

Kamila Łucjan and Paweł Wojtanowicz

Abstract

Advancements in computer technology that have occurred in recent decades have enabled an intensive development in cartographic methods for direct representation of phenomena dynamics. Even with the appearance of ever more advanced technical solutions, the theoretical basis still needs supplementing. The previous cartographic literature emphasises the importance of congruence and isomorphism principles preservation that aims at increasing the effectiveness of dynamic displays. Nevertheless, it is frequently the case that discontinuous phenomena are depicted with the use of smooth transitions. For this reason, it is vital that experimental research should lead to defining which representation methods are appropriate for a given type of content. Our study was focused on the cartographic design of scene transitions in animated maps. Two main conclusions of the research indicate that 1) mode of transition influences the interpretation of the content of cartographic animation depicting discrete changes, 2) maps executed in a smooth mode demonstrate lower effectiveness when compared with animations using an abrupt and abrupt with decay effect transitions.

Open access

Hildegardo Córdova-Aguilar

Abstract

Peruvian cartography in the nineteenth century was very rich and fulfilled the geographic knowledge demanded by the new Republic of Peru. In effect, the country of more than 1,000,000 km2 needed to show the physical environment and to locate the distribution of its natural resources. It was the time when cartography was valued as an element of empowerment and land control, especially when the political borders were rather unstable (G. Prieto 2018). Then, it was timely the publication of Atlas Geográfico del Perú (Geographic Atlas of Peru) by Mariano Felipe Paz Soldán, a prominent Peruvian lawyer and geographer. Author’s purpose is to comment on the new edition of the Mariano Felipe Paz Soldán Atlas Geográfico del Perú, published in Lima in 2012.

Open access

Jordan Tzvetkov

Abstract

The aim of the article is to present different relief visualization techniques created using only free and open source GIS tools, such as QGIS and RVT. The criteria for selection of these techniques are that they should be, on the one hand, simple and fast for implementation and on the other suitable for multiple visualization purposes. Here we present several techniques which combine hillshade with other relief data layers derived from DEM and an assessment of advantages and disadvantages of their visualization.

Open access

Lucyna Szaniawska

Abstract

The paper discusses selected maps of rock strata which exemplify the evolution stages of presentation methods of cartographic data concerning the geological structure of selected countries (France, Great Britain and Germany) which in the first half of the nineteenth century constituted the leaders of the field. The results of geologists’ work are used to present the content of maps, provide explanations and showcase the methods and techniques chosen by the maps’ creators. The analysed maps are accompanied by geological writings which contain descriptions of the chronological order within rock formations and strata defined on the basis of fossils, methods of recreating the geological history of individual regions, and attempts of compiling the acquired knowledge and using it to describe larger areas. The author discusses also two maps of Europe published in the mid-nineteenth century, which are the result of cooperation and research achievements of geologists from different countries.

Open access

Mohammed Dadach, Zoheir Mehdadi and Abd Latif Adjouj

Abstract

Global warming and soil salinity are major constraints threat speared of Mediterranean endogenous flora, however little is known about the effect of these phenomena on seed germination patterns, particularly in Algeria. Germination test under laboratory controlled conditions had been carried out using seeds of Marrubium vulgare, Sideritis incana and Stachys ocymastrum. Seeds were submitted at temperatures of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C, after that and within optimum temperatures, various sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations of 0, 34, 68, 102 and 136 mM were set to evaluated salinity effect. Germination was more satisfactory on temperatures ranged between 15 and 25 °C. Whereas, increased or decreased temperatures from the optimum bring to germination fall. High seed germination capacity had been showed on non-saline solution. While, germination had depressed by enhanced NaCl solution up to 136 Mm in which Final Germination Percentage are either significantly decreased (for S. ocymastrum seeds 18% germination) or absolutely inhibited (for M. vulgare and S. incana seeds), as well Initial Germination Day are delayed. Overall, data showed that germination patterns response varies among species, given that seed germination is remarkably limited by extremes temperatures and salinity.

Open access

Wiesław Ostrowski, Izabela Karsznia and Tomasz Panecki

Abstract

Built-up area is a particularly important element of the content of topographic maps. Its presentation changes significantly when map scales are reduced, due to both conceptual and graphic generalization. What is more, historically, changes in the depiction of built-up area were consequences of changes in the intended use of topographic maps, development of technology and changes in the cultural landscape, of which the built-up area is an important component.1

The authors describe the method of presentation of built-up areas on six Polish topographic maps or series of maps. The above-mentioned maps include the following:

Topograficzna Karta Królestwa Polskiego (Topographic Map of the Polish Kingdom) at the scale of 1:126,000 developed in 1822–1843;

– topographic maps of the Polish Military Geographical Institute (MGI) at the scales of 1:25,000 and 1:100,000, published in 1930s;

– a series of military maps (or military-civilian maps) at the scales of 1:10,000, 1:25,000, 1:50,000 and 1:100,000, developed in 1956–1989, in accordance with the instruction for developing Soviet maps;

– a series of civilian maps at the scales of 1:10,000, 1:25,000, 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 developed after 1995.

The basis for a quantitative comparison of the content of the maps was the number of categories of objects (identifications) which constitute part of built-up area and are presented on individual maps as symbols, as well as the number of characteristics represented by these symbols. These characteristics are divided into two basic types: functional characteristics and physiognomic characteristics.

The analysis shows that military maps issued after the Second World War differ from the civilian maps, as they contain a much larger share of physiognomic characteristics, which is caused mainly from the fact that the vast majority of military maps distinguish between wooden and brick buildings. This difference was to large extent already noticeable among the oldest of the analysed maps – the Quartermaster’s Map and nineteenth-century Russian maps, which were partly modelled on the Quartermaster’s Map, and later also Soviet maps. Due to political reasons, the model of these Soviet maps was later adopted for the development of post-war Polish military maps. Out of all maps drawn up by military services, the inter-war MGI map serves special attention, as it was modelled on German maps. The main difference between military and civilian maps is foremost the fact that civilian maps include more functional characteristics of buildings and take into consideration new physiognomic characteristics related to residential development (compact, dense, multifamily dwellings, single family dwellings).

The analysed maps include not only the characteristics of buildings and built-up area, but also information on the features of the town – population size, number of village houses and the administrative function.

Open access

Anna Przewięźlikowska

Abstract

The provisions of the geodetic law contain the term “Structures permanently attached to buildings”. These are elements that make up a set of attributes of buildings. At present, attributes of buildings are very complex, giving rise to discussion in the surveying environment. Many of them are impossible to be unambiguously and immediately defined by the surveyor. The surveyor is obliged to identify structures permanently attached to buildings, to define them, and to enter these structures with all their attributes into appropriate databases.

This research paper presents the analysis consisting of certain aspects related to an attempt to define these attributes and to determine the principles of assigning their definitions to construction realities. For this purpose, the legal regulations and case-law concerning the studied attributes were referred to. Then, symbolic representation for the presented structures was analysed, as regards its use on geodetic maps. An important element influencing the introduced changes was identified, which is a sign of the times, i.e. digitization of the geodetic and cartographic documentation database. Finally, the Author proposed what changes should be made with respect to the amount of the information collected on structures permanently attached to buildings, as well as to the methods of their presentation on maps.