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Open access

Anna Bazan-Krzywoszanska and Michał Bereta

Abstract

Records of municipal planning documents directly affect the land use. In this way, the market price of the land is also shaped. Awareness of the economic and social consequences of adapting specific solutions is the primary argument that should condition the local policy in terms of spatial planning. The research results indicate that the network trained with attributes which do not describe a property value by its price was able to estimate it with acceptable and satisfactory results. The possibility to use artificial multilayer networks in spatial policy decision-making seems well founded. The research results show the relevance of the assumption that using them for modeling can be helpful in selecting the most advantageous variant of planning arrangements in a local law document which determines the land use and development, therefore impacts its value.

Open access

Edward Nowak and Waldemar Odziemczyk

Abstract

An optimally designed geodetic network is characterised by an appropriate level of precision and the lowest possible setup cost. Reliability, translating into the ability to detect blunders in the observations and higher certainty of the obtained point positions, is an important network characteristic. The principal way to provide appropriate network reliability is to acquire a suitably large number of redundant observations. This approach, however, faces limitations resulting from the extra cost. This paper analyses the possibility of providing appropriate reliability parameters for networks with moderate redundancy. A common problem in such cases are dependencies between observations preventing the acquisition of the required reliability index for each of the individual observation.

The authors propose a methodology to analyse dependencies between observations aiming to determine the possibility of acquiring the optimal reliability indices for each individual observation or groups of observations. The suggested network structure analysis procedures were illustrated with numerical examples.

Open access

Judit Pető, Attila Hüvely, András Palkovics and Viktor Vojnich

Abstract

The rural development grants - among others - help to promote the competitiveness of the agricultural activities. Plantations take great interest in the southeastern part of Hungary. Farmers need to make soil tests before plantation of fruit and grape. We investigated the distribution of the main physical characteristics in this area. For the establishment of vineyards, the areas were adequate according to the pH, and salt content. The results of the soil tests show some strong relationships between the determined physical parameters.

Open access

Myrtill Gráff, Edit Mikó, Bence Zádori and József Csanádi

Abstract

A total of 46 Swiss alpine does were examined. We analysed the composition of the milk and evaluated the body condition of the animals (BCS: 0.5 to 4.5 scale) on the same day in the last third of lactation. Goats were grouped according to their body condition for statistical calculations. We found that there was a statistically detectable relationship between body condition and milk composition of the goats. Together with the increase of BCS, the fat, protein and mineral contents in the milk increased as well. Significantly more fat, protein and mineral contents were found in the milk (6.01%;3.55%; 0,98%) in case of the well-conditioned (BCS 3.5) animals than in the thin ones (BCS 1.5-2) (4.56%, 3.11%, 0.77%) (P<5%). The concentration of milk sugar was similar between thin and better conditioned groups of animals, so the body condition did not affect these values. The importance of our study is that, the high fat and protein content of milk increases the yield of dairy products. If the animals can produce milk that has higher fat and protein content, than we can produce more dairy products that will bring more economic benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of body condition on milk yield and quality (milk composition) in dairy goats.

Open access

Damian Biel and Tomasz Lipecki

Abstract

Nowadays, the growing popularity of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) allows to obtain a point cloud of many industrial objects along with classic surveying. However, the quality and model’s accuracy in comparison to a real shape seem to be a question, that must be further researched. It is crucial especially for Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis, which, being a part of technical design, estimate the values of construction’s dislocation and deformation. The article describes objects such as headgear with steel support and 4-post headframe with steel sheers. Both supports and sheers were modelled basing on point clouds. All the models were compared to the point cloud. The differences in models’ shape were calculated and the maximal values were determined. The results’ usefulness in FEM analysis was described.

Open access

Przemysław Kuras, Łukasz Ortyl, Tomasz Owerko and Aleksandra Borecka

Abstract

The article presents an example of supplementing geotechnical monitoring with geodetic observations. The experimental flood embankment built within the ISMOP project (Information Technology System of Levee Monitoring) was subjected to continuous monitoring based on built-in measuring sensors. The results of geodetic monitoring used for observation of earth-filled flood embankment subjected to external loads are presented in the paper. The tests were carried out on an experimental flood embankment forming a closed artificial water reservoir. The observations were carried out for two purposes. The first was long-term monitoring, which was aimed to determine the behaviour of the newly built embankment. The second purpose was to check the reaction of the levee to the simulated flood wave, caused by filling and draining the reservoir. In order to monitor the displacements of the earth-filled embankment, it was necessary to develop the proper methodology. For the needs of research works, an appropriate network of 5 reference points and 48 survey markers has been designed and established. The periodic measurements were carried out using precise robotic total station. The stability of the reference frame was each time checked and displacements of survey markers were determined based on it. The final results allow to reveal the reaction of levee to external loads. The displacement values were referred to the course of the filling and draining experiment to indicate the relationship between them. In the field of long-term monitoring the results clearly imply the dominance of displacements outside the reservoir for points located on the embankment, in contrast to points on the crest and foreground, which do not show significant movements. On the other hand, in the field of testing the embankment reaction to the flood wave, obtaining reliable results was possible thanks to high-accuracy geodetic measurements. Small displacement values, often at the level of their determination errors, were averaged for groups of points with the same height of foundation. A sizable number of points allows to perceive some tendencies and the relation between embankment soaking, hence its movement directions can be noticed. During periods when the levee was still saturated with water, slight movements outside the reservoir were revealed. On the other hand, the following period of drying caused movement in the opposite direction.

Open access

Jaroslav Andreji, Petr Dvořák and Martin Fik

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Ni, Co, Pb, Cd and Hg in the muscle, hepatopankreas, kidney and gonads of European chub (Squalius cephalus) from the middle course of the Nitra River, during spring and autumn seasons by AAS method. The concentrations of metals (mg.kg-1 wet weight) in the muscle ranged as follows: Ni 0.15-1.18, Co 0.09-0.58, Pb 0.39-1.66, Cd 0.04-0.29, Hg 0.85-2.71. Statistically significant differences among individual tissues, as well as between seasons have been recorded. Higher metals concentrations were detected in inner organs than in muscle. Permissible limits for safe consumption in the case of Pb, Cd and Hg have been exceeded in 100%, 95% and 100%, respectively. Currently, for the Co and Ni are not set any permissible limits.

Open access

Wojciech Pokojski and Paulina Pokojska

Abstract

The article presents the person and works of Georgy Voronoi (1868-1908), the inventor of an original method of diagrams, a student of the famous mathematician Andrey Markov. Georgy Voronoi graduated from the Department of Physics and Mathematics at the University of St. Petersburg, and subsequently worked as a professor of mathematics at the Imperial University of Warsaw. One of his students was the future outstanding Polish mathematician Wacław Sierpiński. In his brief lifetime G. Voronoi published several important scientific articles on number theory. In an almost 100 page paper in French published in 1908 he described a method of diagrams, or polygons, which became known as the method of Voronoi diagrams. In the digital age this method and its modifications found new applications. The entry “Voronoi” is getting more popular on the Internet, and the method of Voronoi diagrams and its modifications are widely described in handbooks and scientific articles. The article presents application of the method in the most popular computer programs from the Geographic Information System (GIS) group and presents examples of its usage in research on geographic space in various scientific disciplines.

Open access

Nna O. Uluocha

Abstract

Nigeria has a vast array of both natural and cultural tourist attractions. The country’s tourism industry, however, remains grossly underdeveloped, and the tourism resources are largely untapped. Hence, the tourism sector of the economy is yet to contribute significantly to the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). One major factor that is responsible for the nation’s current lacklustre performance of the tourism sector is the poor state of tourism packaging and promotion, which, amongst other things is caused by the lack of appropriate tourist maps. Tourism mapping is a key component of tourism planning, development, promotion and management. For Nigeria to drastically and significantly improve the fortunes of her tourism sector, the production, circulation and use of accurate, current and comprehensive tourist maps and atlases must be vigorously pursued. To ensure sustainable tourism mapping and in line with global best practices, the country needs to adopt a Geoinformation technology-based, Internet-compatible multimedia cartographic approach. The author of this paper, therefore, examines the current state of tourism industry and tourism mapping in Nigeria. Some of the hiccups to tourism mapping in the country are identified. The implications of the present poor state of tourism mapping on tourism planning, development, promotion and management in the country are briefly considered. The author makes a strong case for the adoption of a multimedia cartographic approach to tourism mapping in Nigeria. A case of mapping wildlife parks in Nigeria is presented to demonstrate the prospects of effective multimedia tourism mapping of the country. Furthermore, the author identifies and discusses various existing resources in the country that could be harnessed for efficient and sustainable production, distribution and use of multimedia tourist maps/atlases, using Geographical Information Technologies (GIT). Some potential challenges to effective GIT-based tourism mapping in the country as well as how such challenges could be overcome, are equally discussed. Similarly, a model for Web-based, multimedia tourism mapping using GIT is presented. With clear vision, the right policy instrument, mandate, legislation, funding and coordination in place, the current challenges to effective and sustainable tourism mapping in Nigeria can easily be surmounted.

Open access

Karol Łopatecki

Abstract

The author discusses a phenomenon of putting the works of military cartography on medals cast in the 17th century. The analysis focused on a medal presented to Krzysztof Arciszewski (1592-1656) by the Dutch West India Company in 1637. The obverse of this medal features two cartographic images depicting the siege of the Arraial Velho do Bom Jesus fortress (1635) and the battle between Camarigibi and Porto Calvo (1636). They were patterned after two manuscript maps. The maps were made by Arciszewski and attached to a memorandum written and sent to the management of the West India Company on 13 June 1633. They were engraved and published in print only around 1644. The plan of the battle that took place on 18 January 1636 indicates that the engraver (author unknown) used not only the manuscript version but also the medal. The example of the medal minted in 1637 confirms the credibility of cartographic representations featured on numismatic items. It should, naturally, be borne in mind that such representations must have been simplified due to the very nature of the means. Nevertheless, should there be no proper manuscript pattern, such objects may be used successfully as valuable cartographic sources.