In recent years several new forms of lodging have developed as alternatives to the hotel. For business travellers the serviced apartment has emerged as a new phenomenon. Within extant accommodation scholarship the service apartment sector has attracted minimal international attention either from tourism or property researchers. This paper analyses the development and character of service apartments in one of South Africa’s major business tourism destinations, the city of Cape Town. It is disclosed that serviced apartments are clustered around different business nodes in the city and spatially differentiated in terms of serving distinctive business traveller markets.
The increased growth and commercialization of adventure tourism led to a number of changes in the profile of the individuals who now engage in adventure activities. As a result, previous understandings of adventure tourism motivations may no longer be valid. This study seeks to investigate the influence of these changes by analyzing the motivations of tourists who have engaged in adventure tourism across a range of commercial adventure activities. This is done through data collected from participants in adventure tourism, throughout South Africa, using a push and pull factor approach to motivations. The results show the increasing influence of the experiences with nature in motivations, particularly in the context of pull factors. The role of risk and thrill in motivations, which has been emphasized in previous literature, is found to be relatively minimal among these respondents. Furthermore, adventure tourism experiences are found to be dynamic, with an increasing number of significant factors influencing decision-making. It also demonstrates notable differences in the motivations of participants, based on the type of activity in which they engage.
Rapid urban growth can exert negative effects on the natural environment due to the loss of naturally vegetated areas, loss of biological diversity, deforestation and soil erosion. The condition of cities is inherently linked with the natural environment which has a positive influence on health, social relations, human welfare and economic activity. Urban areas should abound in green spaces, and should also be easily accessible to the general public. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution, influence and quality of urban green spaces on the example of the city of Tczew in northern Poland. The proposed methodology can be applied in cities of a similar size and urban structure to promote rational management of urban green space in line with the principles of sustainable development and spatial order. The Green-Space Record, a useful tool for inventorying urban green spaces, was developed to pursue the main research goal. The information accumulated in the Record constitutes valuable input data for further analysis, including the determination of the area, distribution, influence and quality of urban green spaces. The results of the analysis revealed that urban green spaces occupy more than 19% of Tczew’s territory, which is equivalent to 70.6 m2 per resident. Managed green spaces span the area of only 66.75 ha (11.31 m2 per resident) and are unevenly distributed in the city. More than half of these areas are found in the Stare Miasto (Old Town) district, whereas two residential districts (Gdańska, Prątnica) are completely devoid of public greens. The quality of urban green spaces is generally satisfactory in Tczew; however, not all residents have equal access to high-quality public greens.
Poverty eradication is an urgent task set by the world community in the Millennium Development Goals. Studying the success of Brazil, China and Russia as regional leaders in reducing poverty is of great scientific and practical interest for economic geographers in terms of typological peculiarities as well as the approaches and tools used. The article highlights the main features of modern countries’ social and economic development which contributed to poverty reduction or inhibited the process in the past several decades. It reveals the similarities and differences in the approaches to poverty measurement in three BRICS countries (Brazil, China and Russia) that showed the biggest progress towards poverty eradication and presents a comparative analysis of poverty research and measurement methods used at the national level.
Anton Michálek, Peter Podolák and Michala Sládeková Madajová
This paper is focused on the presentation of developmental tendencies of regional disparities in Slovakia in 2001 and 2011 from the point of view of selected and relevant socio-economic and demographic indicators. To test the divergence hypothesis of the regional disparities at a district level, these are evaluated by using multidimensional analysis of 14 indicators. The overall level and development of regional disparities are measured with the help of the methods of descriptive statistics and multi-criteria assessments (integrated index). The results confirm the hypothesis of divergence development as the basic tendency of regional development in Slovakia. The presented research has documented evident time shortening of significant changes in regions drifting towards divergent development. Rapid and, up to now, unprecedented changes (employment and wages growth, enterprise development, foreign investments increase, etc.), are evident and reflected in the majority of indicators – however, with different impacts on the regional level.
Gustavo Bastos Braga, Ana Louise de Carvalho Fiúza and Paula Cristina Remoaldo
The Brazilian official statistics show that the country is mainly urban, while authors including Veiga (2002) and Miranda and Silva (2013) present a more rural Brazil. The absence of a uniform way to define the rural areas in Brazil has led to diffused data about rural Brazil’s size. Therefore, are Brazilian regions predominantly urban, rural or intermediate? This paper applies the rural definition methodologies from Eurostat/European Union to the municipalities of Brazil. The results show the predominance of the intermediary category in Brazilian territory, while the population mostly lives in urban areas. However, due to methodological characteristics, this paper reinforces the necessity of developing other methodologies which would be able to identify rurality and urbanity, considering socioeconomic dimensions.
This study examines determinants of residents’ support for tourism by testing a model based on the social exchange and material culture theories. The model proposes that perceptual heritage proximity influences residents’ attitudes to positive and negative impacts of tourism, which in turn influence residents’ support for tourism. The model was tested using data gathered from a sample of 256 local residents in Kaole Village, Tanzania. Results from structural equation modelling indicate that heritage proximity has an influence on attitudes to the impacts of tourism, which in turn influence support. The findings imply that heritage proximity serves as a point of reference for residents’ evaluation of tourism, which is critical in fostering support. Findings confirm the relevance of the heritage proximity concept in explaining support for tourism. The study provides recommendations to better engage the residents in tourism development. Suggestions for future research are provided.
The age of big data opens new opportunities for urban research. As millions of users have been creating and transmitting visual representations of cityscapes (e.g., photos taken with smartphones), it is crucial to understand features of the online crowd-sourced images of cities and their relations with their offine archetypes. However, it seems that photos posted by users of social networking sites remain understudied and their informative potential has not been fully exploited yet. The aim of the conducted research was to examine and comprehend the nature of the Instagram image of the city. The paper presents the results of investigating 1867 Instagram photos featuring outdoor city views taken in Lodz, Poland in September 2015. The posted photos were classified by their components and attributes. The study revealed that Instagram content does not reflect the urban space in general. It rather selects geographies and subjects presenting aestheticized and picturesque places and objects. Nevertheless, the new components of cityscapes seem to be noteworthy for Instagram users. Finally, the paper argues that mapping Instagram content without prior and careful examination of the local context may lead to biased conclusions.
The widespread use of mobile communications has resulted in a new practice in family and social life, with significant implications for physical distance. This is because mobile communication allows users to overcome spatial issues such as distance to healthcare services, shift to person-to-person connectivity, and the blur boundaries between one point and another. The uneven distribution of healthcare facilities and distances among them has compounded the provision of follow-up care services to healthcare seekers. Therefore, this paper examined the relationship between the use of mobile telephone to access follow-up health-care services and physical distance separating out-patients from healthcare centres. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model provided the framework for the study. Using a systematic random sampling technique, a structured questionnaire focusing on socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, and income), mobile telephone usage for follow-up healthcare services and its effect on physical distance, was administered on 370 respondents at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) Idi-Araba, Lagos. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between the physical distance of patients from the hospital and mobile telephone calls for follow-up healthcare services, and the result revealed a strong positive relationship between them (r = 0.898, p ≤ 0.05). The result indicates that 134 patients used mobile telephone to access follow-up health-care services. It was also found that physical distance is responsible for 89.8% of mobile telephone calls for follow-up healthcare services. Continuous use of mobile telephone technology to improve the quality of follow-up health care service provision for patient satisfaction is recommended.
William Mushawemhuka, Jayne M. Rogerson and Jarkko Saarinen
Climate and weather are important resources for tourism. In particular, nature-based tourism activities and operations are largely dependent on and affected by environmental conditions and changes. Due to the significant socio-economic role of the nature-based tourism and the tourism industry, in general, in the region of southern Africa it is important to understand the dynamics between the industry and climate change. A key aspect of this understanding are perceptions and adaptation preparedness of tourism operators towards the estimated impact of climate change. There is a dearth of empirical studies on climate change perceptions and adaptation in nature-based tourism operations across southern Africa and specifically from Zimbabwe. This research gap is addressed in this article which provides an exploratory analysis of the nature of climate change adaptation practices occurring in southern Africa using evidence from Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.