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Adhesion and Colonisation of Microorganisms on Porous TiO2 and TiO2-Silver Biomaterials

Abstract

Bone graft transplantation is one of the most common transplants in the world and there has been a significant increase in the use of biomaterials in this sector. Bone substitutes are widely used in traumatology, orthopaedics, maxillofacial surgery and dentistry. The culturing method was used to determine microorganism ability to attach and form biofilms on originally synthesised porous TiO2 and TiO2Ag ceramics. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the intensity of adhesion and colonisation of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans on TiO2 and TiO2Ag ceramics. The lowest adhesion and colonisation were on TiO2Ag samples for S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa.No C. albicans adhesion and colonisation differences were found on TiO2 and TiO2Ag ceramic samples.

Open access
Anthropometric Parameters and Biochemical Markers of Military Personnel Under the Influence of High Physical and Psychological Loads

Abstract

Physical fitness, health, and physical endurance are important attributes of persons in military. The purpose of the present study was to assess the changes of anthropometric parameters and of biochemical markers in blood serum for participants of a one-week combat training course (CTC) during which participants had high physical and psychological loads in combination with dietary limitation and sleep deprivation. High physical and psychological loads cause changes in the level of biochemical markers that are indicative of musculoskeletal system dysfunction. The study group included participants (n = 59) of both genders aged 23 to 30 years. Anthropometric parameters (body mass, height, body mass index) were determined. Blood plasma analyses were done before and directly after CTC. Biomarkers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) were measured. Data were analysed by using SPSS 20. We determined levels of anthropometric parameters before, during and after a combat training course. The body mass decreased during the one-week training course, until the sixth day of combat training course, when the peak of physical and emotional stress was reached. The level of biomarkers lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase sharply increased after the combat training course. A high physical load caused changes in biochemical markers, indicating musculoskeletal dysfunction in healthy young persons. The study underlines the importance of checking the health status of military personnel before and after exercises with high physical and psychological loads in order to prevent major health disorders in the combat environment.

Open access
Antiplatelet Resistance in Patients with Atherosclerosis

Abstract

Variable platelet response to aspirin and clopidogrel is a well-known phenomenon in patients with coronary artery disease and ischemic cerebral stroke. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and possible risk factors of antiplatelet resistance in patients with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. The VerifyNow system was used to evaluate adenosine-5-diphosphate and platelet P2YI2 receptor function in patients with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease, who received dual antiplatelet therapy. Aspirin resistance was defined as aspirin reaction units (ARU) ≥ 550. Clopidogrel resistance was defined as Platelet Reaction Units (PRU) > 230. In the group of cerebrovascular diseases there were 13.2% (n = 27) patients with aspirin and 24.5% (n = 50) with clopidogrel resistance. However, in the cardiovascular group there were 20% (n = 9) aspirin and 11.1% (n = 5) clopidogrel resistant patients. In the cerebrovascular group, aspirin resistant patients had a lower triglyceride level (p = 0.001, r = 0.26) than aspirin sensitive patients. Clopidogrel resistant patients had a significantly higher level of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) (p = 0.016, r = 023), triglycerides (p = 0.033, r = 0.16) and lower level of high-density lipoproteins (p = 0.027, r = 0.16) than clopidogrel sensitive patients. In the cardiovascular group, patients who were resistant to aspirin had a significantly higher high-density lipoprotein level (p = 0.038, r = 0.31). No other factors differed significantly between the aspirin or clopidogrel resistant and sensitive patients in the cardiovascular group. Aspirin resistance was more common in patients with cardiovascular disease, and clopidogrel resistance in patients with cerebrovascular disease, although the difference was not significant. Our findings indicate that diabetes mellitus and an elevated level of lipoproteins could be risk factors for aspirin or clopidogrel resistance in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Further studies should be conducted using larger patient cohorts with balanced groups of patients to investigate clinical aspects of antiplatelet resistance.

Open access
Association of Non-Invasive Markers of Liver Fibrosis with HCV Coinfection and Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients with HIV

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the main effects and interaction between viral hepatitis C (HCV) coinfection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) by using a nonparametric ANOVA on direct and indirect markers of liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients. The sample included 178 HIV patients aged from 23 to 65 (36% females). The following parameters were determined in blood of patients: hyaluronic acid, pro-matrix metalloproteinase-1, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and platelet count. The FIB-4 index was also calculated. The nonparametric ANOVA revealed no significant interaction between HCV coinfection and ART. This provides evidence for an independent contribution of each factor on promotion of the pathology. The results also demonstrated that the direct and indirect indicators of liver fibrosis are associated differently with the studied factors. Therefore, a combination of markers should be used for monitoring of liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients.

Open access
Choice of the Acetabular Component Placement in Dysplastic Hip Patients

Abstract

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with hip dysplasia is a challenging surgical operation. Many orthopedic surgeons concur that the anatomical placement of the acetabular components of endoprostheses (AC-EPs) during THA yields the best result. However, there are advocates of the high rotation center of the hip joint after replacement surgery. In our study, we compared the outcomes of THA based on the placement of acetabular cups to identify the most favorable site for AC-EPs in patients with varying grades of dysplastic osteoarthritis. Our study included 88 patients with dysplastic hip osteoarthritis who underwent 106 THAs during a three-year period using cementless fixation endoprostheses. Functional results were assessed by Merle d’Aubigne and Postel’s method and by instrumental gait analysis (IGA). Gait deviation index was calculated based on IGA to compare results in different acetabular component placement groups. Functional assessment of patients by Merle d’Aubigne and Postel’s grading method and IGA showed no significant difference in results due to the placement of the acetabular component. Most complications were found in the severe dysplasia patients group with the anatomical placement of the AC-EP. The appropriate location of cementless acetabular cups during THA in dysplastic hips depends on the grade of dysplasia, expected elongation of the leg, and the potential for adequate bone coverage for the AC-EP. In cases of severe dysplasia, the placement of the AC-EP in the secondary socket can provide a good functional outcome and reduce the risk of complications.

Open access
Clinical and Sociodemographic Characteristics in First-Episode Psychosis Patients in a Rural Region of Latvia

Abstract

The first psychosis is a crucial point for further development of mental disorders. Previous evidence has demonstrated that psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia, are associated with a large number of years living with the disability. It is a global aim to improve prognosis of psychotic disorders, especially in rural regions, where mental health care possibly is not so easily accessible for patients. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and sociodemographic determinants in association with patient and illness related factors to improve knowledge and understanding of first time psychosis patients in a rural region. This is a descriptive, cohort-based study of all consecutive first episode psychosis (F20, F23, ICD 10) patients admitted in the Daugavpils Psychoneurological Hospital (DPNH) between January 2016 and December 2017. Of the 94 first-time patients hospitalised in DPNH with symptoms of psychosis, 69 met the inclusion criteria. Our results showed that median age of patients was 33 years (IQR 27.5–42.0), median duration of untreated illness (DUI) was 30 months (IQR 11.0–60.0), and median duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was 8 weeks (IQR 4.0–48.0). The results showed that 55.1% of first psychosis patients had not seen any health care specialist before being admitted to the psychiatric hospital. We found statistically significant differences between some sociodemographic aspects in DUI/DUP. Patients who lived with relatives had the longest DUI — 36 months, compared with 12 months for those who had established their own family. Unemployed patients had longer DUI — 36 months, compared with 12 months for employed patients. Similar findings were shown for associations with DUP. To our knowledge this study adds several important findings that help to better understand first psychosis patients.

Open access
Clinical Characterisation of Rota Virus Infection Associated with Most Commonly Circulating Genotypes in Children Hospitalised in Children’s University Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study in Latvia

Abstract

In developed and developing countries, most cases of acute gastroenteritis in children are caused by viruses, and rotaviruses are known as the leading cause. The aim of our study was to estimate the main circulating serotypes of rotavirus before the introduction of routine immunisation in Latvia, and to search for their possible correlation with clinical symptoms and circulating genotypes. A cross-sectional study was carried out among children who had been hospitalised in the Children’s Clinical University Hospital from April 2013 to December 2015. Genotyping was done for 462 stool samples. Among G/P combinations, the most predominant genotypes were G4P[8] (61.3%), G9P[8] (12.4%) and G2P[4] (10.0%) in children of age < 5 years, G4P[8] (45.5%), G2P[4] (18.2%), G9P[8], G3P[8], and G1P[8] (9.1%) in children of age > 5 years. There was a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05) between clinical signs (vomiting, dehydration, chronic diseases) and G1P[8] and G8P[8] genotypes. Infants infected with genotype G4P[4] had a statistically significant negative correlation with severity of acute gastroenteritis episodes (p < 0.05). We detected nine different rotavirus G genotypes, and two different P genotypes. G4P[8], G9P[8], and G2P[8] were predominant. We observed correlation between the dominant genotypes and clinical manifestations of rotavirus infection.

Open access
Comparison of the Yield of Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes to the Top 100 United States Brand Styles

Summary

The objective of this work was to compare the nicotine content and yield of new very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLN™) to the top 100 cigarette brand styles in the United States. Nicotine in tobacco filler and nicotine in smoke were measured. On a dry weight basis, VLN™ cigarettes averaged 0.5 mg of nicotine/g tobacco as compared to 19.4 for the top 100 brand styles in the United States. On a cigarette basis, VLN™ cigarettes contained 0.27 mg of nicotine compared to 12 mg for the top brands. On an ISO smoke yield basis, VLN™ produced 0.03 mg nicotine/cig compared to 0.903 mg nicotine/cig for the leading brands. VLN™ cigarettes contained > 95% less nicotine on a per gram basis of tobacco or per cigarette basis than the top 100 brand styles in the U.S. VLN™ cigarettes yielded > 95% less nicotine in smoke than the top brand styles in the United States.

Open access
Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Maxillary Sinus Before and After Sinus Floor Elevation

Abstract

Sinus lift surgery elevation is a procedure that requires radiological maxillary sinus evaluation and procedure planning. The condition of the maxillary sinus before and after sinus lift surgery was assessed. Sixty-five sinuses of 49 patients were included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were performed. The sinuses were analysed radiologically for pathological changes: mucosal thickening, ostia obstruction and accessory opening. The presence of concha bullosa in nasal cavity and septa in the maxillary sinus were recorded. The sinus volume also was measured before and after surgery. Thickened mucosa was found more often in postoperative scans than in preoperative scans (63.1% and 67.7%, respectively). Concha bullosa was found in 30 preoperative scans and in 33 postoperative scans. A correlation between mucosal thickening and ostia obstruction was found. The mean sinus volume decreased after surgery and the changes were statistically significant. In conclusion, changes of the maxillarysinus and nasal cavity can be detected with CBCT. Sinus lift surgery does not excacerebate the existing conditions of the maxillary sinus; however, there is a tendency for pathological features to increase after surgery. Sinus lift surgery is a safe surgery with regard to the maxillary sinus if performed with care.

Open access
Consumption of Thyroid Medications as an Indicator of Increase of Thyroid Morbidity in Latvia from 2011 to 2014

Abstract

The most common autoimmune disorders with clinically opposite manifestations are hypothyroidism in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and hyperthyroidism in Graves’ disease. The healthcare burden of thyroid disease is substantial, resulting in substantial health care costs. The aim of the present analysis is to assess the use of thyroid medications in Latvia from 2011 to 2014 by age and gender. Our study used reimbursed medication prescriptions data, collected by the National Health Service of Latvia. The main indicator was the number of prevalent users of thyroid medications each year from 2011 to 2014, stratified by age and gender. From 2011 to 2014, the number of thyroxine users per 100 000 revealed a statistically significant increase in all age and gender groups, except in 0- to 9-year-old girls. The number of Thiamazole users among men increased in the age group from 40 to 89 years and in women age groups above 49 years. Increasing sales of both thyroid hormones and antithyroid medications are also observed in Estonia and Lithuania, indicating that growing thyroid morbidity is an issue in the whole region. The substantial increase in number of patients highlights the necessity for national guidelines on the use of thyroid function tests and standards of medical care.

Open access