Naimat Ullah, Mohammed Shehu Shagari and Akbar Azam
In this article, inspired by the concepts of extended b-metric spaces, we introduce the notion of complex valued extended b-metric spaces. Using this new idea, some fixed point theorems involving rational contractive inequalities are proved. The established results herein augment several significant work in the comparable literature.
In this research we lay the concept of log m-convex functions defined on real intervals containing the origin, some algebraic properties are exhibit, in the same token discrete Jensen type inequalities and integral inequalities are set and shown.
Elhoussine Azroul, Athmane Boumazourh and Mohammed Srati
In this paper, we study the existence of positive weak solutions for a quasilinear elliptic system involving weighted (p(.), q(.))−Laplacian operators. The approach is based on sub-supersolutions method and on Schauder’s fixed point theorem.
Countries can check the performance of their logistics’ activities to determine their competitiveness in trade logistics. One way to check these performances is to analyze the country’s LPI value in detail which is released by the WB every two years. When calculating the LPI, six indicators (criteria) are taken into account. The weights (importance level) of these criteria are important for countries which would like to focus more on the most important criteria and move their ranking up in the LPI list. However the WB takes into account indicators (criteria) weights equally when calculating LPI values. In order to overcome this problem some studies have used subjective weighting methods and others have used objective weighting methods. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study is to integrate two weighting methods (subjective (SWARA) and objective (CRITIC)) in determining the weights of criteria in order to balance the two weighting methods. Unlike other studies in the literature this study combines two weighting methods. Additionally the PIV method, which is seldom used to address any MCDM problem, is used in this study and a new integrated MCDM model is introduced to literature. In this respect this study contributes to the literature.
This study aims to investigate the impact of savings and foreign direct investment on economic growth in Poland. Savings play an important role in achieving sustainable growth. High saving rates are also an important tool to increase resilience to financial shocks. The economic climate that emerged following the financial crisis revealed problems with the economy of Poland to obtain foreign financing. The decrease in foreign direct investment has led to an unpredictable economic environment for developing countries such as Poland. The decrease in foreign direct investment has led to lower growth rates for an emerging market such as the economy of Poland. The relationship economic growth rate, saving and foreign direct investment are examined for Poland over the period 1992-2016 by using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. According to this approach there is a cointegration relationship between the series and a 1% increase in savings which leads to a 0.81% increase on economic growth rate. Also a 1% increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) leads to a 1.52% increase in the economic growth rate.
Corporate Governance (CG) in India has undergone major transformation in the recent past with the enactment of Companies Act, 2013 and revision of SEBI’s Listing Agreement. Though some studies were undertaken in the Indian context few conventional aspects of CG have been repetitively addressed with conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of some prominent CG attributes such as board size, board independence, role duality, board’s gender diversity, ownership concentration and audit committee independence on both market as well as accounting based measures of firm performance (FP). To this end the study uses a sample of top 100 non-financial and non-utility firms listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) for the period of 2014-2018 and employs two stage least square with instrumental variables technique of estimation which takes into account potential endogeneity in CG-FP relationship. The findings reveal a significant positive impact of board size, ownership concentration and audit committee independence on market based measure of FP while board independence is found to have a significant negative impact on accounting based measure of FP. Moreover role duality and gender diversity are not associated with FP. The outcome of this study highlights how the relationship between CG and FP works in the unique institutional setting of India and it should be of interest to regulators, practitioners and other market participants.
The financial numbers game is unfortunately alive and doing well. One of the forensic accounting techniques is based on Benford’s Law and is used for the detection of unusual transactions, anomalies or trends. The aim of this paper is to test whether the financial statements of Croatian companies deviate from Benford’s Law distribution. The financial statements of 24 companies that are in the pre-bankruptcy settlement process and 24 companies that are not in the pre-bankruptcy settlement process were analysed using the Benford’s Law test of the first digit distribution for the period from 2015 to 2018. The data used to calculate the first digits of distribution were taken from the Zagreb Stock Exchange. The chi-square test has shown that the observed companies that are not in the process of pre-bankruptcy settlement do not have the first digit distribution which follows the Benford’s Law distribution. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z test has shown that the distribution of the first digits from the financial statements of companies listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange fits to Benford’s Law distribution.
This paper investigates the long-term cointegration between tourism prices and domestic inflation in Croatia and Slovenia. Those two countries share a common economic history and statistical crispness in the 20th century, the time when Econometrics was not a blossoming topic. The two countries split the common economic path in the 1990s and since then, econometricians have been tackling different development issues and researches. The purpose of the paper is to stress the importance of using a well-designed time-series methodology when dealing with multiple variables estimation and evaluation as well in designing adequate and efficient quantitative models, capable to provide valuable forecasts and predict external shocks. It is assumed that, at the basis of an efficient quantitative model, there is a need of unit root and errors normal distribution testing. To test the covariance of cointegration between tourism prices and domestic inflation, the vector autoregressive model (VAR) model is used on 260 valid monthly time-series observations (~ 22 years). The results have shown that prices of short-stay accommodation in Slovenia are cointegrated with domestic inflation, whereas in Croatia there is no stable cointegration vector on prices of accommodation services if / when analysed using the intervention dummy variables and a constant. Although the results indicate that the research hypothesis is generally confirmed, better and more robust results could be obtained including mean-shift dummy variables in a VAR model.
Cryptocurrencies are a sweltering topic in modern times of investment strategies. Since the cryptocurrency market is classified as an emerging market, in this paper a portfolio of emerging markets is compiled from the indices of four European Union (EU) countries and one cryptocurrency. The aim of this paper is to investigate how the incorporation of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency into the portfolio affects the performance of the portfolios of these countries. Moreover, by drawing an efficient frontier, the paper identifies where Bitcoin stands relative to other indices in the portfolio. The countries whose indices were used in the analysis are: Croatia, Hungary, Romania and Poland during the period from July 13, 2018 to June 07, 2019. The method used for an efficient frontier formation is Markowitz’s Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). By applying this theory, the minimum variance portfolio at the efficient frontier was created for the portfolio with and without the cryptocurrency. The empirical analysis indicates that Bitcoin improves the effectiveness of the portfolio in emerging markets of the selected EU countries, where the expected risks of a portfolio that includes the cryptocurrency are smaller and with higher returns than those of portfolios without Bitcoin. From the Markowitz’s theory point of view, the results of the empirical analysis also indicate that Bitcoin is on the efficient frontier. Since all instruments on the efficient frontier according to the modern portfolio theory are efficient, it can be concluded that investments in such instruments depend on investor’s risk aversion.