Tourism is an extremely complex field and in order to understand its complexity, none of its components should be left aside. That's why, as many other researchers have done before, the present paper aims to analyze the central element of the entire tourist activity: the tourist. Based on the impressions, opinions and thoughts of Romanian tourists, we tried to determine to what extent the image of the destination they have recently visited has an impact on the satisfaction and loyalty they have towards that destination. Therefore, this paper represents a market research aimed at assessing the image of the Romanian tourist destinations as perceived by the Romanian tourists who visited them and to what extent their satisfaction and intentions to revisit/recommend can be influenced by it. The sample consisted of 200 Romanian tourists, contacted both directly and through social networks, who have visited a tourist destination in Romania with at least one night of accommodation in the last 5 years. Following the statistical analysis of the answers provided, it was found out that there are a number of elements of major importance for the Romanian tourists, while other aspects have a slightly influence on their satisfaction and loyalty. The conclusions of this research should be taken into account by all the stakeholders involved in the development and promotion of tourist destinations in Romania, as the contribution of tourism to the economic and cultural development of a country is an important one, according to some official reports.
The presence of the organization on the market means its evolution in an extremely complex environment in continuous change. These characteristics of the marketing environment impose on the institution a systematic preoccupation for information adjustment, received data processing and analysis to properly substantiate the optimal decisions related to the market. The paper focuses on understanding various aspects of the informational support in the educational institutions decision-making process. The aim of the research is to determine the structure and content of the informational support in education marketing. Based on the literature review, different views are presented on the content and structure of the marketing informational support. This study describes the structure of Marketing Information System (MkIS) and explores its position in educational institutions. Finally, based on the survey results, the article presents the practical aspects of the marketing informational support availability and its use in decision-making process of schools in the Republic of Moldova.
In the context of a highly dynamic labour market, with the entry of the Y and Z generations in the active workforce and the shift of power balance from employers to employees, the corporate employer brand becomes a strategic element and part of the non-material capital that each company can use to attract and retain top talents and, consequently, to get business performance. This paper proposes a modern vision of leadership and talent management, in which collaboration, empathy, democratization of decisions, development of emotional connections and increasing the level of freedom for employees contribute to building an effective, attractive and sustainable Employer Value Proposition. By integrating Human Resources and Marketing management principles, objectives, activities and tactics, companies should focus on authenticity in their communications, in order to win employees’ minds and hearts in the contemporary very intense competition for talents. We suggest updating the traditional Marketing Mix to 15 elements, in order to support Employer Branding Strategies and to reach the Employer of Choice status. The essential objective is the development of a deep relationship between employees and companies, in the form of a transaction with dual value, financial and emotional at the same time. Loyalty is seen as superior and consecutive to solidly applied retention, adding emotional value to the material benefits offered by the companies to their employees.
The internationalization of Japanese business groups (JBG) have been subject to intense scrutiny since JBG shot to world stage in the 1980’s. Studies on the internationalization of JBG have been fragmented in scope and have mainly focused on specific behaviors e.g. mode of market entry, knowledge creation, knowledge flows between headquarters and overseas subsidiaries, overseas market development and sales strategies, to name a few. Little attention has been paid, however, to explaining the reasons behind these behaviors. This literature review aims to contribute to filling this gap by recognizing the internationalization’s embeddedness in the country’s institutional environment, thus providing a more nuanced understanding of the drivers behind these behaviors as well as the intrinsic obstacles that may hinder the outcomes of these internationalization efforts. This study also hopes to answer the theoretical question called for by (Zaheer, Gözübüyük and Milanov, 2010) in their excellent work “It’s the connections: The network perspective in interorganizational research: “How do organizations balance the benefits of trust and embeddedness with the costs of lock-in and inflexibility with the same set of partners?” The holistic perspective of this review has wide ranging managerial implications in terms of effective intra-organizational dialogue, stakeholder management, organizational knowledge management, among others.
Shamsul Huq Bin Shahriar, Sayed Arafat, Md. Fayjullah Khan and Mahbub Ul Islam
Purpose of the research is to investigate service recovery strategies in case of small restaurant brands, customer perception regarding these strategies and their expectations intensely. As the study is qualitative and exploratory in nature, data were collected via in-depth interviews from duo perspective; i.e. service providers’ and customers’ perspective. The results showed that even though the managements are very cautious as regards the service recovery strategies, and customers’ complaints, but sometimes even common service recovery actions fall below the customers’ anticipations. On the other hand, restaurant those are somehow innovative with their recovery strategies; i.e. designed with a clear understanding of customers’ needs, involving customers with the recovery strategies, empowering the service staffs, emphasizing on continuous improvement and customer engagement are getting more responses in case of customer satisfaction, loyalty; and finally, ensures firms sustainability in competitive market as well.
This study focuses on the influence of colour on the online purchasing intention of consumers. The literature review about colour associations showed that several factors could play a mediating role in the relationship between colour and purchasing intention. Two of these factors are emotion and trust, which have been shown in previous studies to have a relationship both with certain colours and with online purchasing intention. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between colour and online purchasing intention, taking into account the influence of emotion, trust and cultural differences between Western and Asian cultures. The method used to investigate these relationships was an online survey, which has been conducted amongst 522 participants from seven countries that can be separated in Western (The Netherlands, Germany and United Kingdom) and Asian (China, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia) cultures. The survey asked the participants about their cultural background, attitudes towards the product and message, emotions, level of trust, colour influences and experience. When filling in the survey, an image was presented to the participants that showed an online shopping background, a coloured context and a simple digital photo camera. Only the coloured context of this image varied amongst the participants; every participant answered the questions being exposed to one colour: red, yellow or blue. The results of the study showed that the direct relationship between colour and online purchasing intention was supported only for the colour yellow and that emotion indeed played a mediating role between colour and online purchasing intention, although no clear relationships could be defined between colours on the one hand and emotion and trust on the other hand. Concerning the cultural differences, results on emotion were found for both Western and Asian cultures, but trust was shown to influence the relationship between colour and online purchasing intention only for Asian consumers. The results partly confirmed the findings of previous studies, but also highlighted areas that need to be studied in more detail or by using another method. Overall, the study showed that colour does influence online purchasing intention, so companies should consider this when persuading consumers to buy their products.
Sorin Adrian Achim, Mirela Oana Pintea and Mircea-Andrei Scridon
Since SMEs are the most important entities of the national economy we can say that their performance is the locomotive of performance at the microeconomic level. The present material is not limited to measuring the performance of SMEs in Romania for a given period, but aims to analyze what impact did the European integration of Romania had on the performance of SME within the development regions. For this we took from the annual edition of White Paper of SMEs for the period 2004-2011 the values of eight indicators used to quantified performance (net result, turnover, return on equity, commercial rate, rotation rate of own capital, overall autonomy rate, labor productivity and overall solvency ratio), we explained the choice of these indicators, we applied the model of unobserved components and established a global performance index of SME development for each region separately. With this index we could determine whether Romania's EU accession had an influence on the performance of SME development in the regions and we could compare this influence with the influences of economic crisis manifested in the analyzed period on the same performance indicators.
First years of specialised retail (in terms of department stores or shopping centres) either that we discuss of the period before the communist regime or that during the regime period itself it is a reality that both benefit from few relevant evidences. As a parallel to those times, the time frame starting from 1990, is the one that provides us with many more details, and like this allowing us to develop an accurate portrait of those retail days. The objectives of the current study is to identify the GLA distribution in the panel of the evaluated cities (as in comparison to the Activ Property Services - APS study) and starting from here to illustrate the existing retail agglomeration in those 24 major cities of Romania. The work behind the proposed paper implied a market research using personal expertise for this field, internet resources, retail magazines, specialised retail agency studies so that to be able to point out, as accurately as possible, all relevant information related to the retail field of activity. Among the conclusions that this study provides, starting with the analysis of the existing shopping centre stock (in the major cities of Romania) and comparing these results with those from the research conducted by APS, in 2017, we find out that more than 77% of the entire GLA of this retail sector is located in those 24 major cities analysed in the current study.
Ciprian Marcel Pop, Mihai Florin Băcilă and Clarisa Doriana Slevaș-Stanciu
This paper focuses on the understanding of experience marketing in a higher education context and also on its implications on students’ loyalty. Therefore, the article explores the most significant determinants of students’ experience, such teaching process, administrative service, courses content, library, accommodation, eating spaces and medical services, university’s space and campus’s facilities, university’s reputation and the provided career prospects. The research aims to outline the importance of analysing students’ experience in the increasingly competitive market of educational services and also to provide a sustainable basis for the Romanian higher education improvement. In its last section, the objective of the research is to measure the student’s loyalty towards the university and also the experience’s impact on their loyalty. The originality of this study consist in the authors attempt to design a student’s total experience survey, this paper being between the first ones analysing this topic in Romania.
The Tokaj wine region is a unique, over a thousand-year-old wine-growing tradition in the world, which is a survival of a living cultural landscape. The Tokaj Wine Region Development Council was established in 2014 to lead the wine region’s Tokaj-Hegyalja National Program. The development concept in this priority program is aimed at promoting complex developments in the ecological balance of the Tokaj Wine Region, which are both natural, social, economic and cultural. The purpose of the paper is to present the region marketing idea in a world heritage wine region. This can be supported by primary and secondary research. The organization of the examined wine region development council and the key actors were asked. There was an inquiry at the wineries, 41 companies answered the questions. There are excellent specialists and the natural endowments are also suitable. The newly established Hungarian Tourism Office is the only hope that Community wine marketing can be really effective, and wineries can also experience its positive effect. There are 27 settlements in the wine region, there is a national park, and the tourism sector is only one that can be complementary to wine-making opportunities. Directions of development: winery, viticulture, infrared structure, tourism extension, culture, traditions, value preservation, hotel, attraction development, uniform appearance and coordination.