The Irish Government has identified research and development (R&D) and innovation as among the key pillars of growth within the economy. To achieve this growth, R&D tax incentives, which are adopted in advanced economies, are set into policy to encourage firms to innovate, thus, making companies more competitive and productive. One of the key enablers to driving R&D is a well-designed, competitive and sustainable tax policy to support the activity. However, evidence on the effectiveness of R&D tax incentives for innovation is largely anecdotal and the influence of innovation on firm-level taxation is still underexplored, in terms of and empirical examination. This paper sets out to review the recent trends and views of industry regarding R&D tax credits.
The market, economic and financial risks are the most important risks, which determine the quality and performance of small and medium sizes enterprises. The main objective of the article is to evaluate the most important sources of market, economic and financial risk between Slovak and Czech SMEs according gender and size of enterprise. The questionnaires of 895 entrepreneurs were collected and prepare on evaluating in the year 2018. The statistical hypotheses were accepted through the mathematical method as is Z-score. The gender of entrepreneur and size of enterprises between Slovak and Czech entrepreneurs is a significant factor of evaluating the sources of economic risk, as is development of the tax and insurance burden; weak availability of the financial resources (loans, foundations); development of the interest rates; growing prices of all types of energy. According to the evaluation of entrepreneurs, the intensity of sources of economic risk in Slovak business environment is higher than in Czech business environment.
A large number of Slovak small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are confronted with often-leaving employees. This situation can have a devastating effect; thus, the ability to predict and early detect the employees’ intention to stay or leave to another organisation provides them with a competitive advantage.
Paper aims to determine how employer attractiveness influences the employees’ intention to stay or leave to another organisation. The online questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data during the September and October 2019 among 357 Slovak SMEs’ employees. The employees’ values were described by EmpAt’s five dimensions scale. Binary logistic regression was used to predict which employer attractiveness factor leads to an intention to stay in the organisation within the next 6 months. Results show that to the employee’s decision to stay working for the organisation contribute Application Value (AV Odds Ratio=2.53), followed by Economic Value (EV Odds Ratio=2.36), Interest Value (IV Odds Ratio=2.23), and Social Value (SV Odds Ratio=1.48). We did not find statistically significant associations between Development Value (DV) and the employees’ intention to stay or leave (ISL).
This study makes several contributions to extant human resource management literature. First, it extends the research on employer attractiveness and employee retention. Second, it expands the knowledge about the predictors of employees’ intention to stay in organisations. On the managerial level, it recommends that the employees’ intent to stay or leave should be regularly measured.
The article focuses on analysis of online communication of pharmaceutical companies in the field of CSR. It is based on the fact that there are specific segments in the economy, which are called sensitive sectors. Even though they are often perceived as irresponsible in their nature, there are effective communication tools, which can used to increase positive corporate image. The present study is a part of a larger research that we conducted in the segment of pharmaceutical industry. We used information about companies available on their websites as a research material. We reviewed their availability on websites, but we also reviewed the content on which companies usually focus in terms of social engagement. Our research was supposed to prove that there are considerable differences among companies in our sample. We analyzed (qualitative content analysis) collected data (basic corporate documents like mission, vision and corporate values) using statistical procedures. These documents are crucial to corporate strategies, and often deal with responsibility issues which are then transformed into business strategies, tactics and programs. According to the nature of the research the generalization of the information provided is relatively limited.
Many researchers have studied gender differences in the entrepreneurial intention of students by analyzing the influence of several intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention. Fewer researchers have analyzed the influence of the university’s environment and support system on the precursors of the entrepreneurial intention of students in general and of female students in particular. This study aims to fill that gap by analyzing the influence of the university’s environment and support system on the precursors of entrepreneurial intention of female students at a university in Atlantic Canada. Findings of this study confirm that two precursors of entrepreneurial intention—i.e., attitude toward behavior and perceived behavioral control—mediate the effects of the university’s environment and support system on the entrepreneurial intention of female students. They also confirm that the university’s environment and support system comprises three distinct but interrelated dimensions, namely entrepreneurship training, start-up support, and entrepreneurial milieu. Results of this study also suggest that the university’s environment and support system has a positive relation with the perceived behavioral control of female students. However, findings of this study also suggest that the university’s environment and support system has a positive but negligible influence on the attitude toward the behavior of the same students. The outcomes of this study will help the university assess the efficacy of its innovation and entrepreneurship initiatives in promoting entrepreneurial activities. By understanding its entrepreneurial efficacy, the institution will be better equipped to raise the perceptions of venture feasibility and desirability, thus increasing students’ perceptions of opportunity.
This paper analyses the volatility of retail fuel prices in nine different EU countries and the spillover effects between fuel prices across selected countries from Central and Eastern Europe and the Eurozone over the 2008-2019 period. In particular, we use the GARCH-GJR model in order to investigate fuel price volatility and identify potential asymmetric dynamics. Moreover, in order to assess the links between fuel prices across countries, we estimate a VAR model and compute spillover measures using the Generalised Forecast Error Variance Decomposition (GFEVD) approach formulated by Diebold and Yilmaz (2009). Our results provide evidence of weak links between retail fuel prices across EU countries, with slightly higher spillovers originating from some developed economies such as France and Italy.
Small business in the Russian Federation is actively developing not only in large cities, but also in small rural settlements. This is facilitated by the demand for agricultural products grown in ecologically clean territory. In addition, the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation is developing support programs for rural entrepreneurs, which allows you to start a business without high costs. This paper discusses farming in detail as the form of small agricultural business. The theoretical part involves an analysis of the essence of the concept of a farm, the legislative aspect, the process of opening and the difference from other forms of management. From a practical point of view, the place of farms in the Russian Federation was determined in the structure of agricultural production. The study was conducted by systemic and monographic methods. As a result, the advantages, disadvantages and prospects for the development of farming in Russia were identified.
Advocacy for pro-environmental behaviour in the business arena is on the increase. Yet, many businesses have continued to indulge in “business-as-usual” practices, which are preoccupied with profit maximization objectives at the expense of all other social benefits. Such anti-environment practice has little or no regard for flora and fauna wellbeing. Hence, the main objective of this study is to review, explore and synthesize current views in the field in view of clarifying relevant concepts in green entrepreneurship context. Also, to identify behavioural and performance standards required of green entrepreneurship growth and development. To achieve the study objectives, we adopted integrative review of literature methodology. Concerning the findings, the paper identified new trends in green entrepreneurship and identified the need to clarify some relevant concepts, such as: industry life cycle, entrepreneurship knowledge sharing, institutional framework, entrepreneurship financing, green entrepreneurship decision-making process among others. We also identified the need to properly delineate the process leading to the practice of green entrepreneurship as a departure from the old entrepreneurship philosophy. Therefore, we recommend that further studies should endeavour to focus on identifying the step-by-step processes involved in the green entrepreneurship practice for the possibility of wider accessibility and ease of understanding of prospective green entrepreneurs in the interest of green entrepreneurship growth and development. Finally, we identified the dearth of literature with change management scholars’ view and contributions to the emancipation of green entrepreneurship from the cocoon of traditional entrepreneurship management practice hence, we threw it open for future research undertaking.
Consumers generally lack the ability to identify brands’ true origins, with their attribution of the wrong origins to well-known brands showing their underlying attitudes. This study suggests that the misclassification of local brands in Indonesia is driven by the halo effect of foreign brands (i.e., brands from Japan, South Korea and China) and the inferior image of locally made products. These constructs, however, differently affect Indonesian consumers’ attitudes towards local brands. This study strongly suggests that, when consumers misperceive local brands as being from more developed countries, they tend to show negative attitudes towards local brands. This study provides useful recommendations for both local and foreign brand owners seeking strategies to enhance competitiveness in the Indonesian market.
Fostering knowledge sharing has been one of the most vital tasks for organizations in the knowledge based economy. Thus, investigating the antecedents of knowledge sharing behavior is of great interest to both academics and practitioners. The impact of leadership on knowledge sharing has been reported in the literature. However, the direct and indirect impacts of authentic leadership on knowledge sharing is under-researched. Furthermore, because knowledge is an individual resource, knowledge sharing can be investigated in the light of the conservation of resource theory. This study applies conservation of resource theory to examine the influence of authentic leadership on knowledge sharing with relational psychological contract and organizational based self-esteem as mediators. Data collected from survey using questionnaire were used to test the hypotheses in a quantitative research design. Structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques are applied for data analysis. The results showed that authentic leadership positively and significantly influence individual knowledge sharing. Furthermore, relational psychological contract and organizational based self-esteem have been found to mediate the above relationship. Discussion of research findings, theoretical and practical implications are also detailed. Finally, the study outlines limitations of research and provides directions for further knowledge sharing studies.