Purpose: The purpose of the research was to find out the correlation between the motivation and costs of internal or external locus of control and the propensity to mentor. Investment of time and personal energy was regarded as factors with an internal locus of control, whereas a lack of mentee’s achievement, problems caused by a mentee, unhealthy or unfriendly relation, and a risk to be replaced by a mentee were regarded as factors with an external locus of control. In the case of internal factors, their locus of control is the mentor him/herself while, in external factors, their locus is outside of the mentor and lies in a situation or an environment.
Methodology: A quantitative cross-sectional study among Polish managers.
Findings: First, the results show that uniquely intrinsic motivation relates to the propensity to mentor, while extrinsic motivation has no importance. Second, before deciding to mentor, managers estimate the costs of mentoring: the higher they are the lower the propensity to mentor. Third, the costs related to the internal locus of control – time and personal energy invested by a mentor in mentoring – are most important when deciding to mentor. The risk of destroying a mentor’s reputation, problems caused by a mentee, unfriendly or unhealthy relationship and a risk to be replaced by a mentee emerged as of little importance. Fourth, previous experience as a mentor or mentee positively influences the propensity to mentor.
Value: The study contributes to existing research, theory, and practice in the field of organizational behavior in the context of mentoring. The findings shed light on decision patterns in managers’ propensity to mentor and thoroughly explore the role of the anticipated cost of mentoring.
One of the most important analytical spheres enabling the diagnostic estimation of intentional changes in a company’s financial result is the area of accrual adjustments of net profit, separated in the cash flow statement prepared using the indirect method. The special cognitive value of accrual differences can be seen when the structure of total accruals is separated by those adjustments that are not directly related to the real activity of the enterprise, and are the result of subjective accounting choices. The main objective of the article is to present the selected econometric models used for examining accrual-based earnings management phenomenon in Poland. The analysis includes following regression models, namely: the Jones model, the Kasznik model, the Dechow-Dichev model and the McNichols model. The empirical studies were conducted among listed companies qualified for the Warsaw Stock Exchange indices: WIG-20 and mWIG-40, whose shares were traded for at least ten years in 1998-2017.
Małgorzata Zaleska and Przemysław Kondraciuk
The aim of this article is to systematise the approach to innovation in the economic theory and to define the indicators used to measure the innovativeness of world economies. The considerations are focused on innovation in the banking sector as it is one of the most innovative sectors worldwide. The identification of the stages of innovation development in this branch is worth emphasising, along with the description of its economic and legal determinants.
Alexandra Ioana Daniela Rus, Monica Violeta Achim and Sorin Nicolae Borlea
The aim of this paper consists in providing a general overview of the notion of intellectual capital as a key to maximizing the corporate performance. Following the researches carried out, we present the delimitations of the intellectual capital in relation with human capital, relational capital and structural capital. In terms of its measurement, we focus on a question which could be a solid base for the next studies: “Can intellectual capital be evaluated?” In this regard, a number of methods (direct and methods based on assets returns), generic model and individual company models were presented, concluding in this way with a hierarchy in terms of utility and their importance.
Aneeqa Zreen, Muhammad Farrukh, Nida Nazar and Rimsha Khalid
Purpose: Entrepreneurship is a vital tool for the economic development of any country. As a field of research, entrepreneurship has become a diversified area of study. A plethora of studies appeared that investigate the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention, most of them focus on personality traits and other psychological factors. However, the studies focus less on practical entrepreneurial education such as internship and business incubation. Thus, the current study seeks to fill this gap by empirically investigating the impact of business incubators and internship programs on student’s entrepreneurial intention in the Pakistani context.
Methodology: The authors collected data through a structured questionnaire from students and ran partial least square structural equation modeling technique by SmartPLS software.
Findings: The results show that business incubators and internship programs have a strong and positive statistically significant impact on entrepreneurial intentions.
Implication: The current study can help policy-makers get a better insight on entrepreneurship so as to improve its innovation, proactivity, and risk-taking ability and how these factors can amend the lack of entrepreneurial awareness among business students.
Anna Białek-Jaworska and Justyna Dobroszek
An effective knowledge-based economy requires regular cooperation between science and business. This is possible thanks to enterprises that create and implement innovations The paper focuses on the recognition of R&D expenditure. This aims to verify if firms with a scientist on their board are more likely to invest in the R&D. We conduct a tobit panel analysis of over 18,000 Polish private firms combined with data on patents and scientists employed at universities. The findings show that firms with scientists on the supervisory board are likely to invest more in R&D. However, these investment in R&D of firms with a scientist on the board are financial constraint. Their growth depends on access to finance. Therefore, institutions in Poland should support and promote cooperation between science and business, aiming for the realization of the implementation research. This approach requires updated regulations in the accounting area relating to the recognition of R&D inputs and outcomes.
Katarzyna Budny, Joanna Krasodomska and Katarzyna Świetla
This study investigates the influence of M&A on the performance of banks operating in Poland. We use a sample of 14 transactions that occurred in the Polish banking sector from 2001 to 2015. Our data set includes pre and post-merger accounting information covering a period of two years before and after the merger. We follow Pilloff’s  approach to determine the average performance changes measured with ROAA and ROAE. According to the research results, M&As transactions seem to affect profitability as both ROAA and ROAE means change. However, these changes do not follow the same trend. The correlations between the acquirer’s pre-merger weighted performance measured with ROAA and ROAE and merger-related changes in performance are significant and negative. The same situation is observed as regards the target pre-merger weighted performance measured with ROAE and merger-related changes in performance. The results also suggest that large acquirers are associated with less successful M&A.
Aleksandra Helena Pasieczna
This paper reports our estimates of the Value at Risk using Monte Carlo simulations for which we developed a computer program. Our approach involves obtaining Monte Carlo parameters by fitting real historical data of different periods to probability distributions. We applied the algorithm to the WIG20 and mWIG40 stock indices, and performed simulations for the Value at Risk at 95% and 99% confidence intervals over six estimation periods ranging from 1 trading day to 250 trading days. This approach was evaluated using the percentage failures and the Kupiec Proportion of Failures test. Our results indicate that this method is highly influenced by the choice of past historical and estimation period lengths considered. Overall, we observed that the Monte Carlo computational scheme is a reliable method for quantifying VaR when parametrized well.
Eugene Kaciak and Andrzej K. Kozminski
Purpose: We propose and test a new leadership model. Our model is an extension of the leaderplex model which proposes that leader cognitive and social complexities are linked with leader effectiveness indirectly, in a mediation scheme, through behavioral complexity. We enhance the leader-plex model with a leader’s degree of managerial discretion as the moderator of the links in this mediation format.
Methodology: We test our model with a moderated mediation approach (Baron-Kenny four-step procedure and Preacher-Hayes bootstrapping methods).
Findings: We use results of interviews with top leaders in Poland and demonstrate that a leader’s managerial discretion is a moderator affecting the mediation scheme assumed in the leaderplex model.
Limitations: The sample size is only 29 leaders. To preserve the respondents’ anonymity, their opinions were evaluated by only one researcher who interviewed them directly. The results may be country specific (Poland).
Originality: We define new boundary conditions for the leaderplex model by showing importance of a leader’s real position (managerial discretion) in an organization. Specifically, we show that the nature of the relationships between the variables of interest will change when a leader operates in one physical environment (e.g., high managerial discretion) rather than another (e.g., low managerial discretion).