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Vandana Singh and Manager Rajdeo Singh

Abstract

This investigation deals with the chemical composition and microstructural analysis of the iron object, a spear excavated from Sanur, Tamil Nadu- a megalithic site dated 300 B.C. to 50 A.D. Phase analysis and microstructural examination were carried using XRD, optical and variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM). Optical micrograph shows the equiaxed grain structure along with the Newman bands. Formation of Newman bands suggests that the original artifact was forged at high temperature followed by cooling, although not so rapid to produce the marked hardening. The absence of carbides at the grain boundary, within the grains and lower value of micro-hardness indicates that the iron spear was not subjected to the carburizing treatment. Results of corrosion characterization revealed that deterioration of excavated iron artifact is associated with the presence of chlorine in corrosion products. However, compact nature of the outer rust (goethite) was helpful in protecting the object. The formation of goethite [∝-FeOOH] layer may prevent the iron matrix suffering from attacks by other environmental factors due to its good continuity. In addition, less aerated environment of storage and no history of any cleaning of object were also helpful in preventing the iron spear from further deterioration.

Open access

Leizou Kaywood Elijah and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the distribution and contents of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from Amassoma axis of the Nun River, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The PAH contaminations in the river water samples was performed using GC-MS method. The results were similar for all of the three sampling stations. Six LMW PAHs: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene and five HMW PAHs: fluoranthene, pyrene benzo (a)anthracene, chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene were found. The ΣPAH concentration ranged from 0.111mg/L to 0.26mg/L. In this study, PAH fingerprint ratios for determining both petrogenic and pyrogenic (pyrolytic) PAH accumulation in the environment and Toxic equivalency factor (TEF) used to estimate relative toxicity of a PAH compared to that of BaP was employed. The Ph/An ratio for water samples were 0.00, 0.33 and 0.00 in three stations, while associated figures for Fl/Py ratio values were 0.67, 0.83 and 0.50 respectively. Pearson correlation matrice analysis reveals a positive correlation between the PAHs; this could indicate a common source for some of the PAHs, however, some were negatively correlated with each other. This behavior could indicate non-point source. A comparative analysis of PAHs concentrations in the water samples with WHO standards revealed that the results obtained in this study were within the permissible levels, however, carcinogen PAHs present in the water of the Amassoma axis, Nun River may pose a threats to human health.

Open access

Barbora Urminská, Ján Derco, Ronald Zakhar and Adriana Korpicsová

Abstract

Natural or synthetic zeolites have unique physical, chemical and structural properties that predetermine their use in many processes, including wastewater treatment. This study presents the results of our preliminary research in the field of nitrogen and phosphorus removal using adsorption and adsorptive ozonation with natural and modified zeolites. Iron-modified zeolite was the most efficient for the removal of ammonium nitrogen by adsorption. Phosphorus removal efficiency using adsorption was relatively low and natural zeolite was not suitable for the phosphorus removal at all. Ozone had no significant impact on the removal efficiency. Regeneration of loaded zeolites with ozone has also been studied. This method was partly efficient but it needs be further examined.

Open access

Ján Víglaš and Petra Olejníková

Abstract

This work was focused on the characterization of novel isolate of Trichoderma atroviride O1, found in the forest around the village of Zázrivá (the Northern Slovakia, region Orava). The isolate was identified by sequencing its internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA. T. atroviride O1 stimulated the development of lateral roots of model plant Lepidium sativum. Simultaneously, the isolate has proved its high mycoparasitic potential as it displayed the ability to attack colonies of phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Fusarium culmorum, Botrytis cinerea). This isolate produced secondary metabolites, which were isolated and tested for the antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. The growth of these bacteria was suppressed to 10 % and 40 %, respectively. The suppression of the growth of two Candida species was also strong (10 % growth). However, growth parameters of three phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium culmorum) were less affected (75 % growth in comparison with the control). Attempts were made to characterize secondary metabolites isolated from T. atroviride O1. Known peptaibols, 20—21 amino acid long, but also shorter peptides, were detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Thus, this study demonstrates the plant growth promotion, strong mycoparasitic potential and antimicrobial activity of the isolate T. atroviride O1, which could be in part ascribed to the production of secondary metabolites. This isolate does have a potential in the biocontrol in eco-farming. Further study, particularly, the identification of produced secondary metabolites, is needed.

Open access

Martin Michalík, Ján Rimarčík, Vladimír Lukeš and Erik Klein

Abstract

Very recently, a report on the antioxidant activity of flavonoids has appeared, where authors concluded that Hydrogen Atom Transfer mechanism represents the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in polar media (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.11.018). Unfortunately, serious errors in the theoretical part of the paper led to incorrect conclusions. For six flavonols (galangin, kaempferol, quercetin, morin, myricetin, and fisetin), reaction enthalpies related to three mechanisms of the primary antioxidant action were computed. Based on the obtained results, the role of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IHB) in the thermodynamics of the antioxidant effect is presented. Calculations and the role of solvation enthalpies of proton and electron in the determination of thermodynamically preferred mechanism is also briefly explained and discussed. The obtained results are in accordance with published works considering the Sequential Proton-Loss Electron-Transfer thermodynamically preferred reaction pathway.

Open access

Anna Uhrinová and Juraj Černák

Abstract

From the aqueous-ethanolic system Ni(OH)2—H2 fumphen (H2fum = fumaric acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), novel complex [Ni(phen)3](fum)·9H2O (1) was isolated and characterized by chemical analyses and FT-IR spectroscopy. Results of single crystal X-ray structure analysis have shown that the ionic crystal structure of 1 is built of [Ni(phen)3]2+ complex cations, fumarate dianions and nine crystallographically independent water molecules of crystallization. The Ni(II) atom exhibits hexa-coordination by three phen ligands with mean Ni-N bond length of 2.090 Å. Water molecules form hydrophilic supramolecular layers with fumarate dianions via extended network of O—H···O type hydrogen bonds with O···O distances from the range of 2.676(2)—2. 916(2) Å; hydrophobic complex cations are embedded between these layers. Thermal study of 1 has shown that endothermic dehydration in the temperature range of 95—195 °C takes at least two steps of the process.

Graphical Abstract

Crystal structure of [Ni(phen)3]fum·9H2O (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; H2 fum = fumaric acid) which is built of supramolecular layers formed by hydrogen bonded water solvate molecules and fum dianions and between the supramolecular layers embedded [Ni(phen)3]2+ complex cations is described here.

Open access

Stanislava Kecskésová, Zuzana Imreová, Bibiána Kožárová, Ján Derco and Miloslav Drtil

Abstract

Undissociated HNO2 (up to 2 mg dm−3) was confirmed as substrate inhibitor for granular biomass from a denitritation upflow sludge bed reactor used for biological removal of nitrite. On the contrary, total nitrite nitrogen (N-NO2 up to 500 mg dm−3) and methanol (COD up to 2000 mg dm−3) were not proven to be inhibitors. pH also affected the denitritation efficiency (optimal pH was 5.9). Reduction of HNO2 concentration in the reactor by effluent recycling is recommended.

Open access

Kristína Lépesová, Monika Krahulcová, Tomáš Mackuľak and Lucia Bírošová

Abstract

Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics and biocides in wastewaters and sewage sludge have a great impact on the development of antibiotic resistance and its spread among bacteria. The aim of this work was to determine the occurrence of coliform bacteria and enterococci resistant to biocide triclosan in samples of sewage sludge. Subsequently, isolated strains of coliform bacteria were identified and characterized in terms of their antibiotic susceptibility and ability to form a biofilm. Occurrence of the studied bacteria was monitored in three samples of stabilized sludge from three different wastewater treatment plants (Vrakuňa, Petržalka, and Senec). The number of triclosan-resistant coliforms was the highest in the sludge sample from the wastewater treatment plant in Senec and the lowest in the sludge sample from the wastewater treatment plant in Petržalka. Triclosan-resistant Enterococcus spp. were not found in any sample of stabilized sludge. Most isolates were identified as Citrobacter freundii and Serratia spp. Triclosan-resistant isolates showed also resistance to antibiotics and the majority of them were strong biofilm producers.

Open access

Hana Horváthová, Katarína Lászlová and Katarína Dercová

Abstract

Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in minimal mineral water media in the presence of bacterial mixed cultures consisting of several individual strains is proposed. Starting from the fact that the properties and features of bacterial strains in mixed cultures can be supplemented and compensated, two-, three- and seven-membered mixed cultures (MC) were performed. The strains used for the construction of the MC were isolated from the waste canal of a former PCB producer. The highest biodegradation of 70 % of the sum of seven defined PCB congeners was achieved by two-membered MC containing the strains Rhodococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia added in the biomass ratio of 1 : 3 and 3 : 1. PCB biodegradation by a seven-membered MC was lower (58 %) but provided several benefits over the less-membered mixed cultures or the individual strains: similarity to naturally occurring microflora, easier preparation of the inocula, certain and repeatable results. Periodical reinoculation of the water media resulted to PCB biodegradation increase to 65 %. Seven-membered MC was applied to the historically PCB contaminated sediment as well, where a 59 % degradation of the sum of seven PCB congeners was determined.