The main objective of this corpus-based study is to research the most frequent two-word collocations in the corpus of nursing scientific articles and compare this newly assembled list of nursing collocations with the Academic Collocation List (ACL). The nursing scientific articles corpus (NSAC) used in this study comprises 1,119,441 words from 262 articles of 10 high-quality journals from the Medical Library Association list which nursing students can freely access. The focus is on noun-noun and noun-adjective collocations. The selected articles were converted into txt files using the ABBYY Fine Reader. WordSmith Tools 7.0 and TermeX were used for noun and collocation extraction. The newly assembled Nursing Collocation List (NCL) and the ACL were compared using Microsoft Excel 2016. A total of 488 collocations were identified in the NSAC and the NCL contains 234 (47.9%) noun + noun and 254 (52.1%) adjective + noun collocation combinations. The most frequent two-word collocation is health care and it appeared 618 times in the NSAC. The ACL (2,469) and the NCL (488) share 123 two-word collocations. Although there are some correspondences between collocations in the two corpora, key nursing collocations with notably higher frequencies are identified in the NSAC (365). Despite the fact that the ACL is the most extensive collocation list across different academic fields and it certainly plays an important role in teaching English as a foreign language, this study suggests that it does not provide key nursing collocations for improvement of nursing collocation competence.
The paper examines the application of computer assisted language learning (CALL) in English language classes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research was designed as an empirical examination of the attitudes of teachers and students on the successful application of computer assisted language learning in English language classrooms in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Lack of motivation is one the problems that most teachers are faced with. There are many causes of poor motivation, but one of them is certainly the unattractiveness and dullness of traditional methods, teaching materials and resources. However, many authors with educational experience point out that the use of information technology can positively influence students’ motivation and encourage them to work actively. While adults, as digital immigrants, might not use modern information technology excessively, children and teens are true digital natives, who have grown up with the latest technologies and use them with great pleasure in all aspects of their lives adapting them to their needs (Prensky, 2001). The results obtained in this research are an indicator of the current attitude of teachers and students towards these issues, but they also highlight some important necessary reforms in the field of teacher education.
This article introduces and discusses an empirical investigation that aimed to establish how pre-service teachers of English (hereinafter “participants”) framed their perceptions of Canvas, a learning management system (LMS), in their studies of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). In the present study, the participants and their respective controls (i.e., non-teacher EFL students) were requested to write a short reflective essay associated with the use of the LMS in their EFL course. All participants and the control group used Canvas as their LMS. The corpus of the participants’ and controls’ reflective essays was analysed qualitatively by means of framing analysis. The results of the qualitative framing analysis revealed that whilst there were similarities in the participants’ and controls’ framing, the corpus of the participants’ essays involved instances of framing that were specific to the participants’ perceptions of Canvas. These findings and their linguo-didactic implications were further presented in the article.
Rhetorical questions (RQs), as a cross-breed of questions and statements, represent an effective tool in putting forward the Speaker’s ideas, as well as influencing the ideas and opinions of other people. Because of their communicative effectiveness and multifunctionality, they are frequently used in different contexts and for different purposes, and, as such, they represent an interesting topic for further research. The aim of this paper is threefold: (i) to explore the nature of the implied answer to RQs, (ii) to offer a classification of RQs based on the Speaker’s communication style, and (iii) to examine whether (or to what extent) the Speaker-Addressee relationship (peer-to-peer, superior-to-inferior, inferior-to-superior) influences the selection and frequency of use of different types of RQs. Using Stalnaker’s (2002) model of Common Ground and Caponigro and Sprouse’s (2007) concepts of Speaker’s and Addressee’s Beliefs, the author redefines the nature of the answers implied by RQs, claiming that they are imposed on the Addressee rather than mutually recognized as obvious. Based on the model of communication styles as defined by Yuan et al. (2018), RQs are classified into aggressive, friendly and sarcastic/ironical questions with imposed answers. The analysis of the corpus, which consisted of 275 RQs taken from ten American movie scripts, showed that friendly RQs are more common than the other two types, and that, in instances where one of the interlocutors is in a superior position, superior-to-inferior RQs are by far more common than vice versa. The finding that RQs asked by inferiors make up less than a third of RQs occurring between interlocutors with different social standing is in line with the view that answers to RQs are imposed on Addressees.
In the U.S. colleges and universities, language courses and cultural studies courses are usually under separate departments and programs. This separation represents the heart of liberal arts education, where students can explore a variety of disciplines. However, a comparative nature of cross-cultural analyses may cause generalized and stereotypical views toward the target country. This present study will introduce the practice of CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) and examine the value of studying the literature in the original language, so that the students will improve linguistic skills, gain knowledge on Japanese literary characteristics, and build on their intercultural competence skills.
The study concentrated on mothers’ reading to their preschool children. Three broad questions were posed about how the mother’s educational level is associated with: (1) the mother’s reasons to read to the child, (2) frequency and duration of this reading, (3) mother-child literacy interaction with the child. The sample of low education mothers (n=55) and high education mothers (n=213) was recruited to fill in a questionnaire of 46 items. Higher education mothers outperformed low education mothers in these variables: reading to the child in order to enhance cognitive development, appreciate the time they are with the child in reading sessions, reading to child frequency, and the number of books the child possesses. On the other hand, low education mothers more frequently than high education mothers ask children about book characters and explain reasons for reading.
The aim of the paper is to characterize the city of Bratislava after the First World War as a literary space in the short story The Worst Crime in Wilson City (Najhorší zločin vo Wilsonove) and its film adaptation Wilson City (Wilsonov). For millions of Czechs and Slovaks, the US President W. Wilson was a legendary figure. The multi-ethnic city wanted to gratify him and suggested to name itself after him. This short episode of our history was found interesting for a Slovak writer Michal Hvorecký, who set a mysterious (horror) short story in Wilson City (Bratislava). The topos of the city became the basic organizational, or, structural element on which the story is built. In the film adaptation of the Czech director Tomáš Mašín there was a generic shift and the film became a detective comedy, or parody of historical events that happened (or could have happened). The paper focuses on the motif of the city and compares this urban space in the literary and film form. It tries to answer the question whether the city – space is only a backdrop of the story or it becomes its (role)player.
Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a major area of interest within the field of formal education. There are numerous studies presenting data and results of CLIL implementation. The positive impacts have been reported in building positive attitudes to language learning, to content subject learning, increasing efficacy of language learning. Questions have been raised about the factors that (may) affect research results and their interpretation. Many small studies bring statistically non-significant data as they use small convenience samples. Meta-analyses enable the researchers to synthesise data from research with the same characteristics. The present article analyses the studies that focus on CLIL implementation at primary and secondary schools with special focus on receptive skills and vocabulary gains. Out of 385 selected studies were 9 included and applying randomised-effect model evaluated. The analysis found no statistically significant differences between the CLIL and EFL groups in listening and reading performance. Concerning vocabulary the statistically significant difference in favour of CLIL (p<0,0001) with overall estimate effect 0,84 and confidence interval ranging from 0,56 to 1,11 was observed.