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Research purpose: Food security remains a major component of economic development. Many developing nations are facing challenges of food insecurity, which had contributed to starvation and other societal problems. With adequate food intake, human healthy living is assured. This study investigates the impact of access to formal finance and indigenous technology and knowledge on food security in Ondo central senatorial district in Ondo state, Nigeria.

Methodology: In total, 216 farmers were sampled, and data were collected through a well-structured questionnaire and focus interviews. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and logit estimation technique.

Findings: Descriptive statistics show that there are more male farmers (61.1%) than female counterparts (38.9%), with most of the farmers (42.7%) in their ages 56 years and above and with 51.9% having primary education. Majority of the farmers (65.7%) engage in arable crop farming, while 15.2 and 19.1% engage in cash crop and livestock farming, respectively. The econometric model reveals that age, income, gender, education, marital status, religion, family size, assets owned and distance are major determinants of a farmer’s decision on account ownership, savings and borrowing. Indigenous knowledge of soil fertility, disease-resistant and quickly-growing crops, food storage, local weather, water management, pest and diseases control are significant determinants of food security in Ondo central senatorial district. Likewise, account ownership, savings and borrowing from formal financial institutions are significant determinants of food security.

Practical implications: It is, therefore, important that efforts to ease access to formal financial services and improve indigenous technology to serve as complement to modern farming techniques to achieve food security be made a priority by government and private institutions.


In the context of new coronavirus COVID-2019 infection spread, many students in numerous higher education institutions have undergone the transition to education applying distance learning technology while medical students undergo partially remote education. It is worth noting that in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, remote education is the best prevention measure for decrease in incidence of the new coronavirus infection among students.


Recent publication is summing up the most important requirements, by which “Heads of State and Government of NATO member countries” have defined the basic tasks and guidelines for the alliance and the member states in order to guarantee their security. These also highly affected command and control supporting communication and information services, systems, beyond that the cyber operation related concepts and developments – latter field becoming of more and more importance. In this part of the article, the author analysed the security threats of the NATO and the according response of them. This part covers the first ten years of the analysed NATO summits, from 1999.


Cybercrime affects multiple areas of society with nefarious activities ranging from human trafficking to illegal arms sale. The Internet has allowed some nefarious activities to be revived as others have emerged in this new age. In turn, this has become a national security issue for countries as this requires resources to combat this evolving threat. These activities include undermining legitimate services that provide government services to its citizens, such as passport, national identification, tax services, and more. This paper introduces some of these activities, enabling readers to understand this digital criminal world further.


Research purpose. The goal of the current paper is to investigate the impact of internal factors on bank performance. All the performance indicators and explanatory factors have been distinguished from the scientific literature.

Design/methodology/approach. To investigate if there was an effect of the distinguishing factors on Latvian banks’ performance, correlation-regression analysis was applied. To test the developed models’ accuracy, determination coefficient, Durbin–Watson coefficient, variance inflation factor (VIF), Cook’s distance and p-value were computed.

Findings. The findings revealed that there was a relationship between all the dependent and independent factors, except return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). ROA has a significant positive relationship only with net commission income, and ROE, with net interest margin and net commission income. Moreover, two regression models were developed and showed that total assets and number of automated teller machines (ATMs) affect the profitability, represented by earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBIDTA) and bank value.

Originality/value/practical implications. The current findings contribute to the scientific literature dealing with commercial banks’ performance issue and could be used by the banks to develop strategies for maximising profitability.


The business world has changed, the consumers and their consumer behaviour has changed, our society has changed and of course our day to day lives have changed with the spread of the SARS-COV-2 pandemic. The current paper represents a brief assessment of how the consumer/consumption behaviour of the individuals and how the marketing activity have changed in the face of this global pandemic. We are underlining several aspects related to the shifts that have occurred in the lives of the consumers, we are pointing out the results of certain research developed in order to identify how the consumers are buying, what are they giving up, and what are they buying more. Further research is being presented related to home media consumption during and after the pandemic and the effects of the SARS-COV-2 pandemic on the marketing activity. We are also presenting several key activities and marketing strategies and direction that the companies should use if they want to survive in this dynamic but troublesome time.


Research purpose. The European Union recognizes the importance of information systems for improving the performance of trans-European transport network ports by promoting a set of initiatives focused on their use. The Directive 2010/65/EU obliges the provision of electronic services for the reception and treatment of declaratory acts necessary for the entry and exit of ships into the European Community and opens the way for future harmonization in the European Union of such services. The research purpose is to analyze and assess the degree of adequacy of European seaport information systems relative to the requirements of the European Directive to the availability of electronic services. Are they complying with the directive?

Design / Methodology / Approach. The objective of the study was to characterize the current situation of the main European seaports regarding the impacts of the European Directive. In this sense, it was decided to construct a survey to facilitate the identification and characterization of the options and actions taken by each country regarding the implementation of the Directive 2010/65/UE. This study was attended by the main EU Members and Norway.

Findings. From the analysis of the results of the European survey on the implementation of the Directive, we can conclude that the implementation of the Directive is carried out by entities of the State sphere. Member States show a low priority to the exchange of information between the Member States and the majority has not taken any action in this direction. With respect to the Single Window development model, the mixed model is the one adopted in most Member States.

Originality / Value / Practical implications. The central objective of Directive 2010/65/EU is to simplify and harmonize the administrative procedures required for maritime transport through electronic means. This Directive is seen as an opportunity to facilitate trade and administrative barriers through harmonization and standardization of the European Seaports Organization. The analysis of directive adoption represents an opportunity to increase scientific knowledge in this economic sector.


This study presents the history of explosive devices and that of their detection. With the invention of explosive devices and their subsequent use, the methods of warfare changed significantly. New procedures emerged that were already unthinkable to implement without the use of such tools. In parallel with the emergence of explosive devices with increasing destructive power, the need to deactivate them also came to the fore. Opposing parties made increasing efforts to detect, deactivate, and destroy explosive devices. After the completion of military operations, the detection of explosive devices did not lose its importance, and developed into an essential mission, since the areas had to be cleared of devices left over from the military actions and posing a murderous danger.


Research purpose. Growth of illicit trade has markedly increased and caused damage to a multitude of economic, socio-economic and environmental outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Hofstede’s country cultural dimensions on the attitudes towards illicit trade and the political will to counter the crime across countries.

Design/Methodology/Approach. The 2018 Global Illicit Trade index published by the Economics Intelligence Unit for 62 countries is empirically analysed. Six hypotheses are built and tested across Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions.

Findings. The results indicate that countries that are culturally more individualistic, have greater uncertainty avoidance and have a stronger long-term orientation have a stronger structural capacity to protect against illicit trade on average.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. In reference to originality, the paper adds to the scarce research on the fight against global illicit trade and empirically explores the role that culture plays in driving the attitudes towards illicit trade and the political will to fight the crime. In reference to practical implications, anti-illicit policy initiatives are likely to be more challenging in collectivist countries with lower uncertainty avoidance and a short-term orientation. Policymakers need to tailor their anti-illicit trade efforts in these countries as these societies will not likely place the same value on countering illicit trade as the countries that are culturally more individualistic, have greater uncertainty avoidance and have a strong long-term orientation.