X-rays application for radiation processing was introduced to the industrial practice, and in some circumstances is found to be more economically competitive, and offer more flexibility than gamma sources. Recent progress in high-power accelerators development gives opportunity to construct and apply reliable high-power electron beam to X-rays converters for the industrial application. The efficiency of the conversion process depends mainly on electron energy and atomic number of the target material, as it was determined in theoretical predictions and confirmed experimentally. However, the lower price of low-energy direct accelerators and their higher electrical efficiency may also have certain influence on process economy. There are number of auxiliary parameters that can effectively change the economical results of the process. The most important ones are as follows: average beam power level, spare part cost, and optimal shape of electron beam and electron beam utilization efficiency. All these parameters and related expenses may affect the unit cost of radiation facility operation and have a significant influence on X-ray process economy. The optimization of X-rays converter construction is also important, but it does not depend on the type of accelerator. The article discusses the economy of radiation processing with high-intensity of X-rays stream emitted by conversion of electron beams accelerated in direct accelerator (electron energy 2.5 MeV) and resonant accelerators (electron energy 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV). The evaluation and comparison of the costs of alternative technical solutions were included to estimate the unit cost of X-rays facility operation for average beam power 100 kW.
The possibility of preparing fission chambers for the experimental determination of subcriticality without time-consuming corrections has been presented. The reactor detectors set consists of monoisotopic chambers. Each chamber is intended for a specific position in the system. Individual weights, rated a priori for all detectors in their positions, allow for quick calculation of whole system subcriticality. The inconveniences related to the spatial effect are minimized. This is achieved by computational simulation of the area method results, for each detector position and all possible fissionable and fissile nuclides. Next, one nuclide is selected, specific for the given position, presenting the smallest difference from the MCNP KCODE precisely estimated kkcode. The case study is made using the model of VENUS-F core.
This paper presents the results of long-term investigations of 137Cs and 134Cs activity concentrations in drinking water in the city of Zagreb for the period 1987–2018. The highest activity concentrations of both radio-nuclides were measured in 1987, decreasing exponentially ever since, while 134Cs in several subsequent years fell under the detection limit. After the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011, the presence of 134Cs in drinking water was detected again. The environmental residence time for 137Cs was estimated to be 8.1 years in drinking water and 5.7 years in fallout. The correlation between 137Cs in fallout and in drinking water is very good, and this indicates that fallout is the main source of water contamination. The observed 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio in drinking water for the post-Chernobyl period was similar to the ratio found in other environmental samples. The estimation of annual effective doses received by the adult members of the Croatian population due to the intake of radiocaesium in drinking water showed quite small doses of 0.28 μSv in 1987 decreasing to 2.5 nSv in 2018, which indicated that drinking water was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium to humans.
Source term is the amount of radionuclide activity, measured in becquerels, released to the atmosphere from a nuclear reactor, together with the plume composition, over a specific period. It is the basis of radioprotection-related calculation. Usually, such computations are done using commercial codes; however, they are challenging to be used in the case of the MARIA reactor due to its unique construction. Consequently, there is a need to develop a method that will be able to deliver useful results despite the complicated geometry of the reactor site. Such an approach, based upon the Bateman balance equation, is presented in the article, together with the results of source term calculation for the MARIA reactor. Additionally, atmospheric dispersion of the radionuclides, analysed with the Gauss plume model with dry deposition, is presented.
The city of Krakow located in southern Poland ranks among the most polluted urban agglomerations in Europe. There are persisting controversies with respect to impact of different pollution sources operating in Krakow agglomeration on air quality within the city. The presented pilot study was aimed at exploring the possibilities offered by elemental and carbon isotope composition of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) for better characterization of its sources in Krakow atmosphere. The analyses of carbon isotope composition of total carbon in the investigated TSPM samples were supplemented by parallel analyses of radiocarbon content in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). This study revealed large seasonal variability of carbon isotope composition in the analysed TSPM samples. This large variability reflects seasonally varying contribution of different sources of fossil and modern carbon to the TSPM pool. The elemental composition of TSPM also reveals distinct seasonal variability of the analysed elements, reflecting varying mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources of those elements. A linear relationship between the fossil carbon load in the TSPM samples and the fossil carbon load in the atmospheric CO2 was found, pointing to the presence of additional source of anthropogenic carbonaceous particles not associated with burning of fossil fuels. Wearing of tyres and asphalt pavement is most probably the main source of such particles.
The aims of this work are to investigate the chemical composition, the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and the chromosome numbers of two populations of Hertia cheirifolia. The samples were collected in the flowering stage, in eastern Algeria locality. The aerial parts of H. cheirifolia were submitted to a hydro-distillation. GC and GC / MS analysed the chemical compositions of the obtained essential oils. The antibacterial activity of essential oils was evaluated using the disks diffusion method against ten bacterial strains. For karyotypic analysis, the squashing method is used. Fifty-eight compounds representing 98.93% of the total oil were identified in H. cheirifolia. The chemical composition is dominated by the presence of major products, α-pinene (48.49 - 53.85%) and Germacrene-D (2.64 - 12.66%). Two distinct chemical breeds were identified, the α-pinene-spathulenol of Batna population, and the α-pinene-germacrene-D of Setif population. The essential oil of H. cheirifolia has a moderate activity against bacteria tested. In contrast, the strains E. coli ATCC 25922, P. syringae ATCC 53543 and E. fecalis ATCC 49452 are resistant to H. cheirifolia essential oils. The observations of root cells meristematic at metaphase of H. cheirifolia gave a diploid chromosome number 2n = 2x = 20, with a basic chromosome number (x= 10).
This study was aimed to determine the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Marrubium vulgare L. collected in the Aures region of Algeria. Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-FID techniques. Thirty-five (35) and twenty-nine (29) components were identified respectively in T. algeriensis and M. vulgare essential oils to represent respectively 94.8% and 75.7% of the total oil composition. The main compounds of T. algeriensis oil were germacrene D (29.6%), β-caryophyllene (11.0%), E-β-farnesene (7.8%), bicyclogermacrene (4.4%) and δ-cadinene (4.0%), while, β-bisaboene (36.3%), β-caryophyllene (7.8%), phytol (6.2%), nonacosane (4.0%) and heptacosane (3.3%) were the main components of M. vulgare oil. The richness of these two oils in germacrene D and β-bisaboene respectively could suggest a new bioactivity.
The present study attempts to analyze the essential characteristics of the global problems in the development of human society at the present stage and to highlight the place of the demographic problem as an objective factor for the existence of modern civilization. It clarifies the criteria for determining a problem as a global one and makes classification from a geographic point of view. It identifies the causes for the demographic problem, analyses and specifies its different dimensions at the global, regional and national levels.
The forest of Chettaba is of great ecological importance for the Constantine region. It is characterized by a very heterogeneous forest cover, the dominance of forest species (Pinus halepensis and Quercus ilex) and an advanced stage of degradation. Vegetation in this region reflects the climate. The summer is dry and hot while the winter is rainy and cold. Indeed, the combination of rain and temperature directly influences the physiology of the vegetation in this forest. The main objective of this work is to characterize the different responses of Aleppo pine and holm oak seedlings and to specify the biochemical variations under the seasonal effect. Biochemical assays of proline, soluble sugars, total proteins and chlorophyll were quantified in the different organs of two species for each of the years 2018–2019. The results obtained show very significant accumulation of total soluble sugars and proline in holm oak and Aleppo pine leaves compared to stems and roots during the winter season (520 ± 20 and 370 ± 17.98 µmol/mg DM respectively). Contrary to the previous results, the highest total protein levels were recorded during the summer with levels of 0.666 ± 0.116 and 1,626 ± 0.107 mg/g FM. Parallel to the accumulation of these three solutes, a gradual decrease in the chlorophyll pigment content was recorded in winter and summer.