The V4 countries went through a transformation of their entire economies, including the agricultural sector, in the 1990s. Each of these countries approached the transformation of agriculture differently, but later the V4 countries’ approach to agricultural development was unified by the EU's common agricultural policy. The aim of the paper was to compare the development of the production (sown area and hectare yield) of selected most commonly cultivated crops in Slovak and Czech regions (NUTS 3) in the period between 2004 and 2017. The development of production in these two countries was also evaluated against the trends of V4 countries. Based on these analyses, common and specific agriculture development trends in V4 countries were revealed. A chronological average was used to evaluate the average values of the monitored indicators in the period from 2004 to 2017 in Slovak and Czech regions. To express the development of the given indicators between 2004 and 2017, the change index was used and visualised cartographically. Regression analysis was used to show the development trends of agricultural production in the V4 countries. In general, the agricultural sectors in the V4 countries show similar characteristics with similar trends, and the average hectare yield has a modest growing trend. In terms of the structure of the cultivated plants, the size of the cultivated areas, the volume of production and the average hectare yields, there have been considerable changes to crop farming in Slovak and Czech regions. The study showed that the changes in the agrarian sector after the year 2004 conditioned by the entry of Czechia and Slovakia into the European Union were reflected in a decrease in crop production and an increase in regional disparities. From the point of view of the production indicator expressing the hectare yield of crops, Czechia achieves better indicator values than does Slovakia.
The paper clarifies the conditions and factors of the development of the institutional environment through modern interdisciplinary analysis. The authors revise the studies of the problem under consideration in the history of science and reveal the decisive role of religion in the development of national business cultures. The study highlights the fundamental postulates, i.e. the canons of theology, and argues for the need to consider them in the context of the analysis of national business cultures. The authors put forward and prove theoretical and methodological principles of the determinant influence of national business cultures and religion on the development of countries (the socio-economic phenomenon of the “economic miracle”). The content of the category “Polish economic miracle” is revealed through analysis of the influence of Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism on other “economic miracles” known from history. The authors conclude that Catholicism currently encourages entrepreneurial initiative of both individuals and organisations, which contributes to the sustainable economic development of countries.
This paper gives a visualization of the territorial origins of the population of the Recovered Lands (Poland) in 1950. It constitutes a map series, based on Kosiński’s research from 1960, presenting data from the first post-war census. Vector data of the historical administrative borders of Poland was used to prepare the maps; specifically the administrative division of the People’s Republic of Poland from 1946 and the state border of the Second Republic of Poland from 1931. The administrative borders were modified as appropriate using, among other things, historical maps and satellite images. The results of this research constitute a comprehensive study on the origins of the population of the Recovered Territories. Twenty-four maps were designed, showing many aspects of the studied phenomenon.
Slovenian communities were eager to re-establish autonomous local governments after the introduction of democracy. These newly established municipalities corresponded territorially to the previous regime’s local communities; however, only 194 municipalities were formed from over 1,200 communities. Some municipalities comprised a cluster of communities, some of which later became proponents of splits, due to the sense that they were being neglected by the rest of the municipality and in the hope of receiving more funds as separate municipalities. Although stricter criteria for establishing municipalities were imposed and the scope of formal initiators was narrowed to limit the splits, the proponents found loopholes in the form of political patrons (deputies) and, as a last resort, sought justice from the constitutional court. The splits occurred in both underdeveloped and developed municipalities. The breakaway municipalities were not more developed than the mother municipality; about a third were less developed. There were no clear financial advantages in creating separate municipalities.
The increase in demand for food and the need to predict the impact of a warming climate on vegetation makes it critical that the best tools for assessing crop production are found. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been proposed as a direct indicator of photosynthesis and plant condition. The aim of this paper is to study the feasibility of estimating ChlF from spectral vegetation indices derived from Sentinel-2, in order to monitor crop stress and investigate ChlF changes in response to surface temperatures and meteorological observations. The regressions between thirty three Sentinel-2-derived VIs, and ChlF measured on the ground were evaluated in order to estimate the best predictors of ChlF. The r-Pearson correlation and polynomial linear regression were used. For maize, the highest correlation between ChlF and VIs were found for NDII (r=0.65) and for SIPI (r=-0.68). The weakest relationship between VIs and ChlF were found for sugar beets. Despite this, it should be noted that the highest correlation for sugar beets appeared for EVI (r=0.45) and S2REP (r=0.43). The results of this study indicate the need for a synergy of low and high resolution satellite data that will enable a more detailed analysis for estimating fluorescence and its relation to climatic conditions, environmental aspects, and VIs derived from satellite images.
In diesem Beitrag werden die Handlungsmöglichkeiten öffentlicher Akteure zur Steuerung von Reurbanisierung in Mittelstädten im Rahmen einer Fallstudie am Beispiel Bambergs untersucht. Es liegen zwei Leitfragen zugrunde: Welche planerischen Handlungsansätze werden in der Wohnungs- und Stadtentwicklungspolitik zur Steuerung von Reurbanisierung entwickelt? Wie beeinflussen lokale Akteurkonstellationen und -beziehungen die Handlungsmöglichkeiten zur Steuerung? Die Untersuchung schließt insbesondere an Debatten über lokale Reurbanisierungstreiber sowie an ein Planungs- und Steuerungsverständnis im Sinne von Governance an. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Bamberg zunächst zur Umsetzung einer planerischen Reurbanisierung die Entwicklung vorhandener Konversionsflächen anstrebte und hierfür Steuerungsinstrumente sowie politisch-administrative Strukturen installierte. Die Inanspruchnahme der Konversionsflächen durch nichtkommunale Akteure verhindert jedoch im weiteren Verlauf die Konversion und schränkt in Verbindung mit den stark von monetären Gesichtspunkten geleiteten Handlungsorientierungen stadtpolitisch relevanter öffentlicher Akteure die Steuerungsmöglichkeiten stark ein. In der Folge ist eine Abkehr vom Ziel der planerischen Reurbanisierung zu erkennen. Der Beitrag schließt mit einer Diskussion, unter welchen Kontextbedingungen Wachstumspolitiken zur Reurbanisierung entwickelt und umgesetzt werden können.
Iran, being located in arid and semi-arid regions, faces an increase in human demand for water, and the global climate change has led to the excessive use of groundwater. China, India and Iran were ranked from first to third, respectively, in excessive groundwater consumption in 2005. The effects of effective parameters on groundwater recharge such as precipitation, surface recharge and well water harvesting in the Karvan aquifer are assessed. Groundwater flow models have typically been and are being adopted since the beginning of this millennium to better manage groundwater resources. The decrease in groundwater level and the potential environmental hazards thereof have made the researchers here to apply the Groundwater Modelling System (GMS software) in 3D in the subject area. This modelling is calibrated and validated for 86 months at steady and unsteady states. In this study, six scenarios are defined as both an increase and a decrease of 30% in precipitation, both an increase and a decrease of 30% in surface recharge, an increase of 10% in well water harvesting and a decrease of 30% in well water harvesting. The best scenario is selected for the subject area water management.