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Abstract

Universities are important economic actors and make a considerable impact on the demand and supply side of their local economies. The aim of this paper is to quantify, compare and classify the different economic demand-and supply-side contributions of the university locations within Lower Saxony (Germany) using a combination of multiplier analysis and spatial econometrics on a NUTS 3 level. In comparison to numerous other studies, this paper does not focus on the economic impact of individual cases or a selected university location but gives a complete picture of the importance and significance of all university locations within Lower Saxony. The income-induced direct and indirect demand effects are estimated using a rich data set of higher education statistics in combination with an income and employment multiplier derived from a regional input-output table. The supply-side effects, i.e. the impact of the education and research outcomes, are estimated with the help of spatial panel regressions, a model derived from human capital theory and knowledge spillover theory. The estimation results give a complete and reproducible impression of the importance and significance of the different university locations, offering the opportunity for comparisons and classifications.

Kurzfassung

Dieser Beitrag knüpft an aktuelle Diskurse zu Digitalisierungsprozessen und Raumentwicklung an. Es wird untersucht, inwiefern durch digitalisierte Fertigungsmethoden (wie Industrie-4.0-Anwendungen) neue Formen urbaner Produktion entstehen können. Aufbauend auf theoretisch-konzeptionellen Überlegungen wurden empirische Erkenntnisse durch 41 Experteninterviews in acht industriell geprägten Städten Nordrhein-Westfalens gewonnen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass durch die gewerbliche Anwendung neuer digitaler Fertigungsverfahren neuartige Formen hybrider digitaler urbaner Produktion entstehen, die spezifischen problemzentrierten Wertschöpfungslogiken unterliegen. Der Beitrag entwickelt ein präziseres Verständnis dieser Wertschöpfungsprozesse und der Standorteinbettung hybrider digitaler urbaner Produktion.

Abstract

Researchers within the built environment disciplines have increasingly drawn on a plurality of social methods in order to enrich their research. Three decades down the line the place of philosophy in the choice of appropriate research methods is yet to be appreciated by some built environment researchers. Consequently, a lack of adventure in interpretive research, wrong choice of methods and underrepresentation of the qualitative approach are reported, which suggests the existence of a knowledge gap. This study is aimed at illustrating the philosophical premise for employing social research methods to address socio-technical issues in built environment research. In achieving this, reference was made to a fire incident in a student dormitory in Nigeria as a problem upon which contrasting–subjectivist and objectivist–philosophical positions were examined. The consideration of these philosophical positions and the choices that resulted from both spectrums were seen to have their strengths and weaknesses. To offset the weaknesses in each approach while also leveraging on the strengths that each approach offers, the paper illustrated how a compromise–pragmatist–position can be reached to allow for the choice of, and mixing of multi-methods to solve research problems that could not be adequately solved using any single method.

Abstract

The growth of the tourism and hospitality industry played an important role in the gentrification of the post-socialist city of Budapest. Although disinvestment was present, reinvestment was moderate for decades after 1989. Privatisation of individual tenancies and the consequent fragmented ownership structure of heritage buildings made refurbishment and reinvestment less profitable. Because of local contextual factors and global changes in consumption habits, the function of the dilapidated 19th century housing stock transformed in the 2000s, and the residential neighbourhood which was the subject of the research turned into the so called ‘party district’. The process was followed in our ongoing field research. The functional change made possible speculative investment in inner city housing and played a major role in the commodification of the disinvested housing stock.

Abstract

The main aim of the article is to investigate the spatial structure of international research on post-socialist cities. The analysis is based on data derived from the Scopus database (2001–2018) and includes issues such as the publication dynamics, structure of authors (with regard to cities and countries), main publishing ‘channels’, as well as networks in ‘producing’ knowledge on post-socialist cities. The analyses conducted primarily lead to a general conclusion about the high spatial concentration of these studies in the scientific centres of Central and Eastern Europe. On a more detailed dimension, however, analyses show a significant diversity in both the publication channels used by researchers and the co-citation networks. On this basis, a conclusion is made about the occurrence of the problem of introversions in research on post-socialist cities on an international scale, which is a broader concept than the Anglo-American dominance discussed for at least two decades.

Abstract

The number of urban mobility studies and projects in the three large metropoles of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, Tehran, Istanbul, and Cairo, is growing while other large cities do not enjoy a large share. It would be efficient for those other large cities to adapt the experiences, projects, and studies of Tehran, Istanbul, and Cairo to their own contexts. This paper can help facilitate that adaptation. It investigates the transferability and generalisability of the findings of a recent publication by the lead author on mobility choices in Tehran, Istanbul, and Cairo to some other large cities of more than one million inhabitants in the MENA region. The discussion provided here can provide decision-makers in the MENA region with guidance on how to utilise the findings from a recent study on Tehran/Istanbul/Cairo in their own contexts. T-tests were conducted to test the comparability of the three base cities with a sample 57 others with populations of over one million people. The results show that it would be possible to adapt the urban mobility studies of the three base megacities to 3 to 27 cities based on different criteria. Key suggestions identified by this study include providing local accessibility, neighbourhood facilities, and cycling facilities as well as removing social and legal constraints to cycling, advertising cycling, informing people about the harm arising from the overuse of cars, and increasing street connectivity by adding intersections. According to the findings, these evidence-based recommendations can enhance sustainable mobility for the inhabitants of up to 27 large cities.

Abstract

Green areas located on the peripheries of cities have the potential to become green public spaces not only of recreational but also educational character, promoting at the same time the knowledge about environmental protection. The cities included in the research belong to the małopolskie voivodeship (Lesser Poland voivodeship). With the use of geospatial data of land cover, as well as territorial forms of environmental protection, it was pointed that 48.4% of forest, wooded and shrub green areas located within city borders are covered by a form of environmental protection, thus being a valuable resource of significant nature potential. Making such spaces available in a conscious and attractive way is presented on the example of projects implemented in the cities of: Stary Sącz, Nowy Targ and Kraków. The presented projects were used to make recommendations for city authorities to create green public spaces.

Kurzfassung

Ausgangspunkt des Beitrages ist die Annahme, dass nachhaltige Raumentwicklung in substanzieller Hinsicht an ein relationales Raumverständnis und prozedural an die Auseinandersetzung mit Konflikten gebunden ist. Diese Anforderungen werden auf einen konkreten Gegenstand der räumlichen Planung bezogen: landschaftsbezogene Identitäten. Deren Konzeptualisierung erfolgt als individuelle Deutungen landschaftlicher Spezifik, die sich der Materialität ebenso wie gesellschaftlicher Deutungsmuster bedienen. Für die empirische Erfassung werden landschaftsbezogene Identitäten als Zuspitzung der ‚angeeigneten physischen Landschaft‘ konkretisiert. Im Zentrum des Interesses stehen also solche Merkmale, die zur individuellen Konstruktion spezifischer Landschaft ‚zusammengeschaut‘ werden und auf die sich Zugehörigkeits- bzw. Zusammengehörigkeitsvorstellungen sowie emotionale Zuwendungen beziehen. An diesen als Referenzpunkte bezeichneten Merkmalen kommen auch identitätsrelevante Konflikte zum Ausdruck, also gegensätzliche Deutungen landschaftlicher Spezifik. In einer ländlichen Fallstudienregion werden so verstandene landschaftsbezogene Identitäten mit qualitativ-rekonstruktiven Methoden sichtbar gemacht. Die Ergebnisse von 28 leitfadengestützten Interviews belegen ein vielfältiges Spektrum an Referenzpunkten, die zwar individuell unterschiedlich besetzt sind, aber dennoch wiederholt auftreten. Zudem zeigen sich gegensätzliche Deutungsmuster: Dieselben Merkmale gelten den einen als identitätsstiftend, den anderen nicht. Die Diskussion resümiert die theoretisch-konzeptionellen und methodologischen Überlegungen vor dem Hintergrund der empirischen Ergebnisse und leitet Implikationen für die räumliche Planung ab. Ein besonderer Fokus liegt dabei auf Handlungsempfehlungen zur Bearbeitung konfliktär verfasster Lesarten landschaftsbezogener Identität.