The aim of the research was to diagnose manifestations of functional and structural disorders and consider the effect of intervention on the musculoskeletal system of students of teacher’s program of physical education. A total of 40 students of Faculty of Sports Prešov University in Prešov participated in the research. As part of the experiment we designed a targeted movement program as an intervention and applied it to an experimental group of students. After 5 months of the intervention, the measurements were repeated. In experimental group we noticed that 30 % of men and 20 % of women improved from III. to II. qualitative degree of shortened muscles. The statistically significant difference (p <.05) was confirmed in group of men. From the perspective of intersexual differences, we observed a statistically significant difference among the shortened muscles in the experimental group (p ≤.05). Changes in structural disorders of the spine after the intervention were statistically insignificant. In regards to good spinal health and muscle balance, we assume that targeted movement program can have preventive effect against functional and structural disorders.
This study aims to determine the differences and to achieve better effect in the sprint training, shuttle run and agility on base of running speed of athletes softball. This study uses an experimental method with a 2×2 factorial design. Participants in this research were 42 male athletes (mean age = 16.88; SD = 1.31), Indonesian high school students. The instruments of this study were the base running test and reactive agility testing protocols. Analysis of the data is analysis of variance (ANOVA) of two pathways at a significant level α = 0.05. The results of the study are as follows: exercise sprint training give better effect to the results of base running extracurricular softball, as evidenced by the value of p = 0.036 < 0.05. Participants who have high agility level give a better effect than participants who have low agility level on the results of softball extracurricular base running, as evidenced by the value of p = 0,000 < 0.05. There is no interaction between the training model and agility on the results of softball extracurricular base running, which is evident from the value of p = 0.634 > 0.05. This research contributes to the field of softball sports, especially in creating an appropriate training program to increase the speed of base running in male students by using sprint training so that results are more effective.
The purpose of this study is to examine: (1) the difference in the effect of the method of dribbling sprinting and sprint interval training on the ability of dribbling; (2) the difference in influence between high-eye coordination and low-foot coordination on the ability of dribbling; and (3) the interaction between training methods and eye-foot coordination on dribbling skills. Participants in this study were 37 soccer students aged 12 – 13 years (M = 12.38; SD = 0.49). This research method is an experiment with a 2×2 factorial design. The instrument for measuring ankle coordination is the Soccer Wall Test and for measuring the ability of dribbling is the Short Dribbling Test. The data analysis technique used is two-way ANOVA at the significance level α = 0.05. The results of the study are as follows. (1) There is a significant difference in effect between the method of acceleration dribbling and interval running training on dribbling ability, as evidenced by the value of F = 14,032; p value = 0.002 < 0.05. (2) There is a significant difference in the effect of high eye-foot coordination ability and low-foot eye coordination on dribbling ability, as evidenced by the value of F = 27,685; p value = 0,000 <0.05. (3) There is a significant interaction between the training methods (acceleration and interval running dribbling exercises) and eye-foot coordination (high and low) on the dribbling ability of students aged 12-13 years, as evidenced by the value of F = 21,780 and the p value = 0,000 <0.05.
The aim of the study was to determine the levels of lower limb explosive strength of girls in different sport specialization. The sample consisted of 24 girls in aerobic gymnastics (n = 12) and athletic (n = 12) aged 10 to 12 years. To assess the levels of girls’ lower limbs explosive strength, we administered the following tests: countermovement jump test, countermovement jump with free arms test, squat jump test, 10-seconds repetitive jumping test. Testing sessions took place in September 2019. To obtain data about the levels of lower limbs explosive strength, we recorded step height (cm) and duration of the flight phase (s). Data about the lower limbs explosive strength were collected using the Optogait system for optical detection. We applied basic statistical characteristics, namely Student’s t-test and multivariate linear regression. There were no significant differences between girls in aerobic gymnastics and athletics. We recorded better test results in the group of girl’s athletes in the countermovement jump, countermovement jump with free arms and squat jump. In the group of girl’s involved in aerobic gymnastics, we recorded better results in the 10-second repetitive vertical jumping and vertical jump strength. According to the collected data, we may conclude that the training process of the selected girls in terms of explosive strength development is significantly different. Girls involved in aerobic gymnastics showed a higher level of performance in the 10-second vertical jump, which results from the structure of sport specificity.
The objective of the present study was to analyse subjective quality of life (S-QOL) throughout the quality of life indicators’ (QOLIs) and quality of life domains’ (QOLDs) satisfaction, and overall S-QOL among elite and competitive sports games players (i.e. players) and compare the SQOL between the male and female. The research sample comprised of 106 male players (mean age 27.2 ± 1.96 years) and 28 female players (mean age 24.9 ± 1.45 years). A standardized Subjective Quality of Life Analyses (S.QUA.L.A.) was used as a primary research method. No significant differences were found in overall S-QOL neither in QOLDs’ satisfaction between male and female players. Male players present significantly higher satisfaction with leisure activities, sport and work than females. Both genders equally declared the highest S-QOL by social relation and physical health/level of independence and the lowest level of S-QOL by psychological health/spirituality.
The main aim of this research was to compare differences in heart rate values (HR) of soccer players during small-sided games (SSGs) with different number of players. We assumed that the number of “neutral” player or players in small-sided games will significantly affect the intensity of SSGs and in this case the heart rate values of participating players. The experimental group consisted of older junior players from the FC DAC 1904 Dunajská Streda soccer club (n = 9). The heart rate values were evaluated on the basis of collected data, which we obtained using Polar sport testers and special software Polar Team2. In order to find out the statistical significance of the difference in heart rate was used the One-Way ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test. The level of statistical significance we set at 5 %. We found out that with increasing number of “neutral” players’ the intensity of small-sided games gradually decreased. During SSG1 (3 vs. 3), we recorded the highest achieved average heart rate values of the monitored players, in average 171.33 ± 9.39 beats.min-1. This form of the SSGs was the most intense, but not statistically significant. Our recommendation is to employ SSGs in the systematic training process with different number of players, because we can adequately prepare the players for the match load itself. Attention need to be paid for the playing position requirements.
The objective of this study is to know the level the group cohesiveness and the type of relationship between it and the psychological pressure and control center for emerging footballers under the 17 years. The descriptive approach of the study was based on a sample of 70 young footballers between the ages of 15 – 17 years of the professional Algerian championship who are still studying. The measurement of cohesiveness of the group, consisting of 34 phrases divided into four dimensions, was used on 5 dimensions, and on the scale of the center control the internal and external consists of 20 phrases. We found an average level of group cohesiveness in all dimensions and in the total score of the group cohesiveness scale with mean and standard deviation estimated at (118.5 ± 13.13), high level of psychological stress and total degree of psychological stress with mean and standard deviation of 163.38 ± 10.67). The average level in the remote control center and high in the external control center, there is a statistically significant correlation between group cohesiveness and psychological stress, and a statistically significant correlation between the cohesiveness of the group and both the internal control center and the external control center. The psychological pressures negatively affect the cohesiveness of the group while the control center with its both sides the internal and external does not affect the cohesiveness of the group.
The purpose of this research is to determine the nature of the relationship between the physical conditions and the teaching performance of the teacher of physical education and sport in high schools of Mostaganem (Algeria). To achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers prepared two main questionnaires. The first questionnaire was about the school physical conditions whereas the second was related to the teaching performance. These questionnaires were applied on a random sample that contains 65 teachers across high school level in Mostaganem, using the descriptive correlative approach. Thus, the results revealed there is a positive correlative relation between the physical conditions and teaching performance.
High intensity interval training (HIIT) is an exercise program not only for professional athletes, but also for the general population. Usually, one-dimensional modalities such as running or a cycling simulator are used. There also exist protocols that use the HIIT principles but apply full-body exercises (HWT). The purpose of the study was to verify the response to unconventional loads based on HIIT and HWT protocols using the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and spiroergometry: wall ball (WB); SKI ergometer, toes to bar (TTB) and assault air bike (AB) in a selected proband. Working interval was 60 s resp. 30 s, the rest between sites was progressively reduced from 60 s to 30 s. The proband completed a total of 3 laps. The results showed that the load applied had been similar to that of HWT or HIIT, where the effect on cardiorespiratory and metabolic functions was confirmed. Acute changes in the observed parameters of SmO2 in m. vastus lateralis indicate a possible effect on the development of strength capabilities. It has also been confirmed that the application of variable types of load can be applied simultaneously with the adjustment of rest time and thus using conditions that can reflect current options (material, environment, time) and specific goals. The measured values of muscle tissue oxidation, carbon dioxide output, heart rate confirm that a similar type of load can be a suitable means of affecting cardiovascular and metabolic functions.
Ectomorph often below the average weight characteristics by a “thin frame” and difficult to gain muscle mass and fat. According to similar studies to build their muscle mass under it is necessary to include adequate multiple joints and larger muscle groups in bodybuilding program, in this study by using a wheelchairs, when doing a pushed up. The aim of the study was to improve upper-body strength and endurance among 20 healthy ectomorph male students, selected by the intentional method, according to their weight, which did not correspond to their height. They were controlled while performing push-ups, flexed arm-hangs and chin ups. Our goal was to compare the impacts of two training proposed programs (Traditional with weight (CS) v’s wheelchair (ES)). The training programs were applied for 6-weeks with 15-minute warm-ups integrated through their regular PE basketball courses cycle planned in the second semester. Built on statistical apply, we confirmed that wheelchair is a tool that enhances the upper-body muscles of ectomorph-type better than traditional body-weight training. It was approved in the present study through the use of wheelchair push-up, as an excellent means to increase the upper-body muscle-building strength and endurance better than the classic method used by our PE teachers.