1 - 10 of 455 items :

  • Social Sciences x
  • Theory and History of Education x
Clear All


This study aimed to analysis the educational process in teaching physical and collective sports activities for secondary education in light of the competencies approach, where we used the descriptive analytical approach. The study was conducted on a sample of 206 teachers of physical and sports education working in some high schools in the Algerian region using a questionnaire network. We have come to say that the educational process in teaching collective physical and sports activities is based on educational goals and procedures and evaluation; and through this, the material of physical and sports education becomes a leading role as a result of developing the performance of teachers, and therefore this offering can be considered as a way to reform educational systems through the reform of educational materials


Introduction: The earth has entered a new geological epoch: the Anthropocene. The Anthropocene demonstrates how human activities have changed the world negatively by causing several environmental issues such as global warming. Therefore, it has become an important problem for people. Education should be reconsidered according to the new epoch to deal with it. There is a trans-disciplinary call for this issue. In relation to this call, the present study has aimed to evaluate the new English language teaching program (ELTP) for lower secondary school (5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grades) in terms of the Anthropocene in Turkey.

Methods: The present study was designed as a qualitative study. The data collection tools were the new ELTP for lower secondary school and the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th-grade English language course books prepared according to the new program. The data were analyzed through documentation analysis. Triangulation and thick descriptions were used to make the study trustworthy.

Results: The documentation analysis of the data has showed that there are six themes related to the nature in the new ELTP for lower secondary school: theme 9 (the animal shelter) in the 5th grade; themes 4 (weather and emotions) and 9 (saving the planet) in the 6th grade; themes 4 (wild animals) and 9 (environment) in the 7th grade; theme 10 (natural forces) in the 8th grade. The learning outcomes and language skills of each theme were prepared according to the contents of the themes. Theme 9 in the 5th grade shows how human activities can affect the environment positively. Theme 4 in the 6th grade indicates how the environment can affect people. The rest demonstrate how human activities have affected the nature negatively and how people can save the nature.

Discussion: Theme 9 (saving the planet) in the 6th grade, themes 4 (wild animals) and 9 (environment) in the 7th grade, and theme 10 (natural forces) in the 8th grade explain how several environmental issues have occurred owing to human activities, how these issues have affected the nature and human lives negatively, and how people can deal with these issues. Theme 9 (the animal shelter) in the 5th grade informs students about how human activities can affect the nature positively, and theme 4 (weather and emotions) in the 6th grade about how the environment can affect people. Through these themes, the new ELTP for lower secondary school can enable English language students to understand that people are a part of the nature, have the power to change the environment, and can live with the environment in balance.

Limitations: The curriculum evaluation is only related to the new ELTP for lower secondary school (5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grades) in Turkey.

Conclusion: The Anthropocentric evaluation of the new ELTP for lower secondary school has shown that it can raise English language students’ awareness of the relationship between people and the nature and their effects on each other.


History is not often fair to some personalities who, in their own right, deserve to be recorded in the memory of a people. What would set Milovan Jaksic apart from any other top athlete and his successes is not significant and greater, but the circumstances in which he achieved world-wide fame and the time in which this was achieved deserve to be a reminder to younger generations. The sooner the result, with which he contributed as a part of the collective, to this day has not been surpassed in domestic football. In addition to the sporting success by which he is most recognized, until recently, in recent circles, and for the last ten or so years, work aims to look back on life and work after his sports career. It is related to the interests and aspirations of Jakšić from his boyhood days, and they are related to the book, which is especially significant from the aspect of correlation of sport and education. Also interesting is the human side of the famous goalkeeper, who came to the fore during difficult moments during World War II. Given that we, as a people, are committed to tradition, this work will also look at several major anniversaries associated with this man that are significant to national sports history.

In the absence of literature, the paper relies on several monographic publications, as well as on newspaper articles and works of material from the Archives of Yugoslavia.


Introduction: Globalization provided people in once isolated lands with an array of democracy types and international principles. The boosting traditional, conventional, societal, ethnical, and cultural differences in countries all over the world are pushing educational authorities to reexamine their contemporary habits, customs, principles, and practices of citizenship. Examining the assumptions and methods of cultural democracy in education settings is the foundation of critical pedagogy. Thus, a critical multicultural pedagogy is formed on critical views on democracy and diversity by illuminating the transformative nature of citizenship. Accordingly, this study inquires the conceptual grounds of class teachers in a phenomenological tradition in that it investigates the conceptions of these teachers on the concept of diversity and democracy. The data of the study were gathered through a questionnaire, besides semi-structured interview questions designed by the researcher. Based on a mix method research design, this study makes use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques to collect the required data. 160 class teachers officially working in diverse regions in Turkey voluntarily participated in the study (N=150 for the questionnaire and N=10 for the interview). Related implications to raise the awareness of class teachers on diversity and democracy were presented at the end of the study.

Methods: This study searched for the conceptual underpinnings of the class teachers in the phenomenological tradition (Marton, 1981). Just like other methods to utilize philosophical phenomenology to the social sciences (Entwistle, 1997), the interpretative process of phenomenographic research is quite similar to that of grounded theory which refers to a set of systematic inductive methods to practice qualitative research (Richardson, 1999). Based on a mix method research design, this study makes use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques to collect data.

Results: The findings demonstrate that class teachers are open to new perspectives, diverse religions and different genders. Thus, it can be said that a critical perspective was adopted by class teachers. Further, class teachers should be included into curriculum and syllabus design which are solely carried out by policy makers. Otherwise, critical skills of class teachers might be destroyed in the process of education. Thus, primary school curriculums and textbooks need to focus on the importance of democracy and diversity. Policy makers, Ministry of National Education, Turkey and Higher Council of Education need to include critical theory and critical pedagogy into curriculum. Future studies should focus on the views of both novice and professional class teachers. In addition, views regarding democracy and diversity from different cultures need to be examined in future research. Direct democracy, representative democracy, gender diversity, cultural diversity and pluralistic perspectives need to be adopted by related textbook publishers, classroom teaching departments, administrators and policy makers.

Discussion: The findings of the study show that the participants developed a positive perspective towards democracy and diversity, although some issues in the context of Turkey are hardly mentioned or criticized (Dodd, 1992). The most important problem in examining democracy and diversity was religion because the participants stated that they respect religion, in their case Islam, because they somewhat would not want to hear church bell in a land of Islam (Bader, 2007). Diversity has been conceptualized as a positive element in the study. Since democracy and diversity are interrelated and interwoven, the participants generally adopted these terms (Banks et al., 2005).

Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that the respondents had positive conceptions on individual and cultural diversities. Further, they developed good attitudes towards cultural democracy and they believe in the power of integration through individual differences. Critical pedagogy is an educational theory which aims to form a progressive and democratic culture by means of critical inquiry, which consequently results in valuing and respecting personal and cultural differences. Critical pedagogy perceives teaching as a naturally political event, refuses the neutrality of knowledge, and asserts that matters of social justice and democracy are not recognizable from only educational activities.


Introduction: Leadership is part of the educational process, nevertheless, it has not been fully surveyed. Successful teaching and good results usually depend on an educator, as well as on the way s/he organizes the educational process. There are a lot of various educators who organize the educational process in a different way. As a result of that, three prevailing leadership styles appear - coaching, instructional and educational. In the scientific literature, it is possible to find a huge amount of information about these three styles, however, little research has been carried on the comparison of differences and similarities between them. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to derive and compare parameters (criteria) in leadership, distinguishing and summarizing their differences and similarities in tables.

Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to compare the particular leadership styles according to formulated original parameters (criteria).

Methods: In the paper, the method of a comparative literature review is applied.

Conclusion: Comparing leadership styles, coaching leadership is focused on helping the learner and the improvement of the educational process; instructional leadership aims for effective and academic teaching when the educator is the leader; while educational leadership is focused on distributing education when the teacher, student and school environment are involved in the educational process.


New scientific discoveries in the quantum physics give us possibility in a new way to perceive the relation between physical exercise and the Christian theology of creation, in accordance with the basic hypotheses of the theoanthropocentric theory of the development of physical culture. Man’s role in the world, especially in his motion, is to mediate, that is to be agent of connecting or bridge between the creation and its Creator. Motion is the reflection of human intellectual, emotional and spiritual condition, and body is a tool for the realization of harmony among them. It is therefore an instrument of love to God, in mutual giving and acceptance in which the field of all creation is actuated.


The problem in this study is the lack of arm and shoulder muscle strength training on the results of high school student shot put. This study aims to determine how much influence the arm and shoulder muscle strength training model has on the results of the shot put in high school students (SMK). The research participants were students of class XI SMK Negeri Rambah Samo, Rokan Hulu Regency. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling technique, amounting to 18 vocational students with an age range of 17-19 years (M = 18.2; SD = 0.8). This research is using the experimental method. The test instrument is shot put and data analysis using t-test statistics. The results of the study explained that the arm and shoulder muscle strength training model had the same effect on the results of students’ throws. The results of statistical calculations show that the posttest t-count of the experimental group’s arm and shoulder muscle strength is -0.11, where the t-count is smaller than t-table 9-0.11 <2.06), so the conclusion is that arm muscle strength training and shoulder muscle strength have the same effect on increasing shot throws. students. Therefore, arm muscle strength training and shoulder muscle strength are as good as increasing student shot put results.


Keeping the head in a forward position can, in the long run, cause a postural disorder termed upper crossed syndrome – UCS. Upper crossed syndrome is defined as overactivity, or tightening, of the upper trapezius, major pectoralis and levator scapulae, combined with a weakened rhomboid, serratus anterior, middle and lower trapezius, as well as deep cervical flexors. This posture can result in neck pain, as well as upper back pain. The syndrome has been exacerbated with technological advancement, and the ever-increasing use of computers and smartphones. It affects school-age children, university students, as well as employees who work in an incorrect position or repeat the same actions throughout their working day. Physical exercise, namely, strength and stretching exercises, is one of the possible methods of correcting this postural disorder. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of studies to date in order to determine the effects of implementing different exercise programs on the treatment of upper crossed syndrome. The analyzed scientific papers were collected by searching online databases of electronic academic journals: Google Scholar, PubMed, Wolters Kluwer. The review focused on papers published between 2000 and 2019. Key words used for searching the databases included: upper crossed syndrome, effects, exercise program. Studies were included based on meeting the following criteria: examining the effects of different exercise programs on upper crossed syndrome, as well as on reducing neck and upper back pain, and improving functional ability. Based on the criteria set, a total of 15 studies were included in the final analysis. The final analysis established that upper crossed syndrome was affected most favorably by programs containing strength and stretching exercises, when these were administered over a 4-week period, with a minimum weekly frequency of 3 practice sessions.


Introduction: Education is an important tool for improving many aspects of life, including socio-economic status or well-being. The paper is aimed at monitoring the financial literacy of pupils in Eastern Slovakia.

Methods: The contribution will contain the results of the survey. We analyse in detail the theoretical definition of financial literacy, strategy and measures of the state administration bodies in the field of improving financial literacy of more than 2000 pupils.

Results: The result of the research paper is an analysis of the achieved data and their characteristics.

Discussion: This part of the research paper deals with the areas of financial literacy of pupils in Slovakia. Education is an important tool for improving many aspects of life, including socio-economic status or well-being.

Limitations: Participants of the electronic questionnaire participated in the answers according to the activities and projects prepared by a particular elementary school.

Conclusion: Higher life expectancy, pension reforms, the availability of a more comprehensive range of financial products and services mean that the ability to make well-informed financial decisions is increasingly considered an important life skill. If a school fails at certain points during a child’s study, it is assumed that this will have a negative long-term impact on the child’s life in the future, as ending a school without sufficient qualifications can lead to difficulties in ensuring equal participation in the financial, civil and social aspects of modern society. Education is an important tool for improving many aspects of life, including socio-economic status or well-being.