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The connection between venous thrombotic events in patients with implanted pacemakers and changes in coagulation factors has been the basis of numerous scientific studies for years. Results show that the effect on the coagulation system is a long-term and dynamic process, as well as presence of a significant dependence with many concomitant cardiovascular diseases.

Advances in medicine in recent decades and increase in life expectancy of patients with implanted cardiac devices (ICD) increase the risk of a variety of complications. These adverse events may be associated with development of thrombosis, change in the stimulation threshold, need for ablation due to concomitant rhythm pathology and others. Analysis of data from literature shows unequivocally that placement of endocardial electrodes leads to activation of the coagulation system in the body. On the one hand, this is a result of the direct traumatic moment and endothelial damage in the early post-procedure period, and subsequently, the presence of electrodes of the foreign body type in some individuals can provoke a procoagulation state.

More in-depth research is needed in this area to clarify the answers to these questions, namely: in which phase of the coagulation cascade are the changes most significant; is there a way to anticipate these changes and prevent them accordingly; is disturbed homeostasis of coagulation temporary or persistent.

These questions will be answered after sufficient data have been accumulated on these changes and how to modulate them.


The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global health threat. This review summarizes comprehensive research findings about the SARS-CoV-2 persistence in inanimate surfaces and opportunities for applying biocides to limit spread of COVID-19. SARS-CoV2 is highly stable at 4°C but sensitive to heat and extremely stable in a wide range of pH values at room temperature. Coronaviruses also well survive in suspension. Desiccation has a more severe effect. SARS-CoV-2 can survive in the air for hours and on surfaces for days. Hospitals are significant epicenters for the human-to-human transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 for healthcare workers. The most contaminated SARS-CoV-2 zones and objects in isolation wards, in intensive care unit specialized for novel coronavirus pneumonia, are under discussion. SARS-CoV2 is sensitive to standard disinfection methods. Studies revealed that 62-71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite inactivated SARS-CoV2 in 1 minute exposition; while 0.05-0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate were less effective. Both ethanol and isopropanol were able to reduce viral titers after 30-seconds exposure. It was found for reusing personal protective equipment vaporized hydrogen peroxide treatment exhibits the best combination of rapid inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and preservation of N95 respirator integrity under the experimental conditions. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 can be highly stable in a favourable environment, but it is also susceptible to standard disinfection methods. Environmental infection control of the air and especially for surfaces is considered as a mandatory step in addition to limiting person-to-person contact.


Background. Conflicts across professional workgroup and hierarchies inundate the clinical workplace. Early Career Doctors (ECDs) are also affected either as victims or as a provocateur/perpetrator. The effects of conflict at their workplaces have both significant positive and negative dimensions and impacts on ECDs. Little has been reported about conflict among ECDs in Nigeria.

Thus, this study explored the issue of conflict and conflict resolution among ECDs in Nigeria, in a bid to elicit information on the causes, consequences, perpetrators and victims.

Method. This was a qualitative study, using Focus Group Discussions (FGD) to explore information on conflict and conflict management among purposively selected key respondents (n = 14) from seven tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. The respondents are ECDs who were leaders and representatives of other ECDs in their various hospitals. Two FGDs were conducted.

Results. The result showed that conflict is inescapable in clinical settings and occurred at different levels. The perpetrators are varieties of health workers, and most are task-related conflicts, although there are relational ones. The conflicts with the government on labour-related issues are also frequent. The lack of job description and specification and power struggle among others were highlighted as the drivers of conflicts between ECDs and other health-workers. Conclusion. The findings of the study were discussed, and suggestions were made to reduce its effect, which would require structural solutions to mitigate at different levels and the diverse players in the health sectors.


Aim: The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the relations between anthropometric parameters, red blood cells’ (RBC) variables and cardio-physiological parameters in healthy and physically active children and adolescents.

Material and Methods: In this study 625 subjects, (410 males and 215 females; age span 8 to 18 years) underwent body composition analysis (Matiegka method), blood analysis and ergometry testing (Bruce protocol).

Results: In both groups, body height and weight were positively correlated with RBC variables. In female group almost all correlations between RBC variables and body components were insignificant. In boys all absolute body mass components showed positive correlations with RBC variables with notice that body fat mass had lowest correlation coefficient. Body fat percent (BF %) did not show any correlation with RBC variables in both gender groups. In boys BF % had moderate negative correlation with aerobic performance: exercise time (ET) and VO2max (rs = -0.41 and rs = -0.39). Lean body components showed weak positive correlations with ET and VO2max. RBC count did not show significant correlation with any cardio-physiological parameter in both groups. Haematocrit and haemoglobin showed weak positive correlations with VO2 max and general endurance (exercise time). In girls all correlations between cardio-physiological and RBC variables were insignificant. The relationship between all body components and all cardio-physiological variables in girls were statistically insignificant.

Conclusions: Our findings revealed that there are some expected positive correlations between lean body mass components, aerobic performance and RBC variables in boys, while in girls such relations were not noticed.


Introduction: Prostate carcinoma is the most frequent malign neoplasm among men with an ever-growing incidence rate. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript leads to the androgen induction of ERG proto-oncogenes expression, representing a high presence of oncogenes alteration among prostate tumour cells.

Aim: The aim of this research was to detect and evaluate theTMPRSS2-ERG fuse transcript in the tissues of patients with prostate cancer, and establish a base of material of these samples for further genetic examination.

Materials and methods: The research was a prospective clinical study that involved and focused on random sampling of 101 patients (62 with prostate cancer-study group and 39 with benign changes in the prostate-control group). Real time PCR analysis for detection of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript in prostate tissue was performed and also data from the histopathology results of tissues were used, as well as data for the level of PSA (prostate-specific antigen) in blood.

Results: TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript was detected in 20 out of 62 (32.2%) patients with prostate carcinoma and among no patients with benign changes whatsoever. There were no significant differences between patients with/without detected TMPRSS2-ERG fusion related to Gleason score. Among 50%, in the study group this score was greater than 7 per/for Median IQR=7 (6-8). Significant difference was recognized, related to the average value of PSA in favour of significantly higher value of PSA in the study group with prostate cancer, but there was also no significant difference between samples with prostate cancer who were with/without detected TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript related to PSA level.

Discussion: The results from this research are in accordance with the values and results from analyses done in several research centres and oncological institutes.

Conclusion: The positive findings in small scale studies encourage the implementation of larger scale studies that will be enriched with results of genetic transcript in blood and urine and will define the positive diagnostic meaning of the TMPRSS-ERG fusion transcript.


Introduction: One of the most important types of microorganisms in the oral cavity in both healthy and non-healthy individuals is Fusobacterium nucleatum. Although present as a normal resident in the oral cavity, this Gram-negative pathogen is dominant in periodontal disease and it is involved in many invasive infections in the population, acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, as well as many adverse events with a fatal outcome.

Aim: To determine the role of F. nucleatum in the development of polymicrobial biofilms thus pathogenic changes in and out of the oral media.

Material and method: A systematic review of the literature concerning the determination and role of F. nucleatum through available clinical trials, literature reviews, original research and articles published electronically at Pub Med and Google Scholar.

Conclusion: The presence of Fusobacterium nucleatum is commonly associated with the health status of individuals. These anaerobic bacteria plays a key role in oral pathological conditions and has been detected in many systemic disorders causing complex pathogenethic changes probably due to binding ability to various cells thus several virulence mechanisms.

Most common diseases and conditions in the oral cavity associated with F.nucleatum are gingivitis (G), chronic periodontitis (CH), aggressive periodontitis (AgP), endo-periodental infections (E-P), chronic apical periodontitis (PCHA). The bacterium has been identified and detected in many systemic disorders such as coronary heart disease (CVD) pathological pregnancy (P); polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), high-risk pregnancy (HRP), colorectal cancer (CRC); pre-eclampsia (PE); rheumatoid arthritis (RA); osteoarthritis (OA).


Pathological aggregation and accumulation of α-synuclein in neurons play a core role in Parkinson’s disease (PD) while its overexpression is a common PD model. Autophagy-lysosomal pathways are general intraneural mechanisms of protein clearance. Earlier a suppressed autophagy in the brain of young transgenic mice overexpressing the А53Т-mutant human α-synuclein (mut(PD)) was revealed. Previous studies have recognized that Cystatin C displays protective activity against neurodegeneration. This cysteine protease inhibitor attracts particular attention as a potential target for PD treatment related to autophagy modulation. Here we evaluated the mRNA levels of Cst3 encoding Cystatin C in different brain structures of 5 m.o. mut(PD) mice at standard conditions and after the chronic treatment with a neuroprotective agent, ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg, 36 days). The inflammatory markers, namely, microglial activation by IBA1 expression and mRNA levels of two chitinases genes (Chit1, Chia1), were also assessed but no significant difference was found between control and transgenic mice. Cst3 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in the striatum and amygdala in the transgenic PD model. Furthermore, this was associated with autophagy decline and might be added to early signs of synucleinopathy development. We first demonstrated the modulation of mRNA levels of Cst3 and autophagy marker Becn1 in the brain by ceftriaxone treatment. Taken together, the results support the potential of autophagy modulation through Cystatin C at early stages of PD-like pathology.


Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PRF in the treatment of infrabony defects in patients with chronic periodontitis by evaluating the clinical outcome through periodontal depth, clinical attachment level at the baseline, 6 and 9 months post operatively.

Material and Methods: Sixty infrabony defects with probing depth ≥ 5 mm were treated. The inclusion criterion was the necessity for surgical bilateral maxillary treatment. By using split-mouth study design, each patient had one side treated with conventional flap surgery and the other side with conventional flap surgery and PRF. Clinical parameters, such as probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment lost (CAL), were recorded in both groups at baseline, 6 and 9 months post operatively.

Results: Positive effects for all clinical and radiographic parameters were evident in the group with PRF. Mean PD reduction demonstrated statistically significant greater results in the test group (4.00±1.07 mm) compared to the control one (4.83±0.99 mm), p = 0.003 after 9 months postoperatively. After 9 months, there were better results in the test group compared to the control group for CAL (5.60±1.61 mm, 6.20±1.58 mm), but statistically not significant.

Conclusion: Additional use of PRF in the conventional surgical treatment of infrabony defects demonstrated better parameters than the open flap debridement alone.


For achieving the good health and wellbeing for all children, the main role of pediatrician and other health care professionals is to follow their development.

We implemented developmental monitoring for 465 children at the age of 12 - 60 months, in the period of 4 years (2016 - 2019), using standard algorithm in which start is always with child history. It should be comprehensive, and must include a detailed prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history.

Obtained results showed that 16.13% of participants have some serious illness in family history, and the same percentage (16.13%) manifested serious perinatal problems which imposed the support in intensive care unit. Breastfeed are 49,46 % of children. Only 7,53 % are not completely vaccinated.

About the parameters for the development, we obtained that 11,83 % were not walking at the time of the assessment, and 65,81 % were not speaking. Toilet control was negative, and in 75,27 % they still were wearing diapers.

Allergic manifestations at the time when the assessment was done is present in 8,60%. Finally, serious illness in child past history was positive in 19.35 % of evaluated sample.

We concluded that a good history is needed and indispensable in the assessment process, particularly when exogenous causes are identified as the risk for the developmental delay. Obtained positive answers are directory for further investigation as well to correlate risk-consequences relationship.


In their daily practice dentists frequently have patients showing signs of stress-related oral manifestations in different forms. Stress-related aetiology of oral changes are still not investigated enough, and present a subgroup of psychosomatic diseases which had been recognized in medicine a long time ago. Recognition of such psychological or emotional disturbance needs deep evaluation “per exclusionem”, and is beneficial for both the patient and clinician. Psychological management should be taken into consideration when treating patients with these psychosomatic disorders. Therapeutic approach comprises different forms of psychotherapy and medication as well.