This article analyzes the labor gender policies and the strategies of “genderization” put forward by the Franco Dictatorship in Spain. The Franco regime understood that women were the touchstone of society and key in both biological and sociocultural reproduction. Legislative regulations and sanctioned discourses accentuated the division between productive-public and reproductive-domestic spheres, relegating women to the latter. Nevertheless, to what extent did women embrace and challenge the regime's idealistic view of gender? This article contemplates female employment within and beyond official discourse. Oral sources used in this article suggest that socioeconomic reality overflowed the narrow limits of normative femininity. Not all women could enjoy the “honor” of embodying the exalted role of “perfect (house) wife” that the Franco regime had entrusted to them. In addition, this article explores changes in the ideal of femininity throughout the dictatorship. The Franco regime underwent crucial transformations during its almost 40 years of existence. This article argues that its adaptation had repercussions on sociocultural patterns and gender policies. Francoism built its early notion of normative femininity on the ideals of domesticity and Catholic morality, but (re)shaped the meanings of womanhood and (re)adjusted the legal system to fit the new circumstances that arose in the Cold War context.
Globalization in the early 21st century can be considered as the age of inequality that splits the world into the rich North and the poor South. From the perspective of language politics, only very few discussed the division across the globe, especially, between Eurasia and the “Rest of the world.” In Eurasia, indigenous languages and scripts are used in official capacity, while the same function is fulfilled almost exclusively by non-indigenous (post/colonial) European languages in the Rest of the world. In the countries where they are spoken, non-Eurasian languages have limited presence in the mass media, education, or in cyberspace. This linguistic imperialism par excellence is a long-lasting and pernicious legacy of European (western) colonialism. The aforementioned divide is strongly associated to the use of ethnolinguistic nationalism in state building across many areas of Eurasia, while this ideology is not employed for this purpose outside the region.
This article focuses on the manifestations of Islamophobia of Czech politicians and political parties on the social networking service Twitter during the 2015 migration crisis. It utilizes the securitization theory of Copenhagen school as a theoretical framework, and through content analysis of relevant tweets aims to provide more data on what role Islamophobia played in the securitization of incoming migrants. We find that although securitization, and much more politicization, of migrants took place, obvious Islamophobia, similar to the one of the Czech Islamophobic movement, happened only in some cases. A number of those politicians who politicized or migrants and Islam usually raised their voices against radical Islamophobes.
In this article, we compare the solutions which the largest Polish cities apply to effectively manage and administer public urban transport. We pay attention to the legal, administrative, and political limitations of current activities; we also analyse public transport strategies in terms of plans for the future. We state that large Polish cities prefer to entrust public transport services to fully dependent companies, do not seek to diversify service providers and do not allow the coexistence of public and private operators. Our research is the first comparative study which has used the eleven largest Polish cities as a research sample. Its results are important not only for decision-makers, but also for entrepreneurs in the transport industry. Not only does our analysis prove that, currently, urban transport in the largest Polish cities is carried out mostly by companies which fully belong to cities, but also that the future strategies of the target state will not be determined by political decision makers at all, or no significant changes are foreseen. In the largest Polish cities in the future, the tramway sector will be fully controlled by municipal companies; in the bus transport sector, private carriers will be able to count on a maximum of 20–30% share of transport work while the railway sector will remain under the control of regional administration, not local urban administration.
Living in a capitalist society we are witnessing an alarming growth of both consumerism and materialism. Nowadays, this phenomenon has become a lifestyle itself. Thus, this study aims to demonstrate how consumers’ perception of luxury and premium brands can be easily influenced by various factors such as entourage, social media or the desire to be at the top of the social hierarchy. Currently, neuroscience and consumer psychosociology play an essential role in creating impactful advertising campaigns as it becomes increasingly difficult for a brand to remain market-leading.
In the second part of the study, the quantitative magnitude of the iconic motif offered by the couple Perseus and Andromeda indicates a significant influence that the archetype of the pathetic man has on several plastic currents. The evolution of such a theme exceeds the identity of the mythological characters and, moreover, even allows the reversal of the poles of visual interest. The distinction between prototype and archetype is blurred when the investigation reaches the prehistoric origin of the theme, because the universal texture of plastic patterns agglutinates the concepts.
While exploring the doctor-patient communication from a narrative perspective among patients suffering from cardiovascular conditions within the social context, as well as how this interpersonal conversation relates to the modern concepts of patient-centered care (PCC) or Shared Decision Making (SDM), we expose the fact that there is a noticeable shift to the paternal paradigm in the Romanian medical system, by considering the researched sample group. For this study, based on an extensive research, we considered relevant to approach the topic from the patient’s viewpoint, given that in the case of cardiovascular diseases, how the patient understands to manage his/her condition and how he/she is aware of and corrects the aggravating factors of their lifestyle results from good communication with the doctor and the medical personnel. Considering the data on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Romania’s and Europe’s mortality statistics (cardiovascular conditions rank first as death causes) and the fact that one of the most critical components in the CVD management is the patient’s compliance with the treatment and with the implementation of the recommended lifestyle changes, the research of the doctor-patient roles and their communication in the therapeutic process is of significant educational mportance.
In migration research, one can observe a turn towards locality and interest in the role of municipal authorities in multi-level migration governance. Migration governance can be defined as set of legislation and regulatory measures, as well as actions developed and implemented by public and private actors, at transnational, national and local levels. Integration strategies include long-term programs, as well as short-term and ad hoc activities. Migration and growing diversity in cities bring both challenges and opportunities for the local authorities. The local responses to the settlement of migrants should not be underestimated because of the focus on integration, this can build upon a common sense of belonging. This paper analyses the institutionalization of local integration strategies in two Polish cities: Gdańsk and Wrocław. The goal is to analyse the relations of diverse actors in a multi-level governance context. It looks at the aims of the strategies, tools, target groups and the definition of integration.