The study integrates geophysical and geotechnical methods for subsoil evaluation and shallow foundation design. The study involved six vertical electrical sounding and geotechnical investigation involving cone penetration test and laboratory soil analysis. Three major geologic units were delineated; the topsoil, weathered layer and partly weathered/fractured/fresh bedrock. The overburden thickness is in between 15.2–32.9 m. Based on resistivity (16–890 ohm-m) and thickness (12.7–32 m) the weathered layer is competent to distribute structural load to underlying soil/rock. The groundwater level varies from 4.5 to 12.3 m. Therefore an average allowable bearing capacity of 200 kPa is recommended and would be appropriate for design of shallow foundation in the area, at a depth not less than 1.0 m with an expected settlement ranging from 9.03–48.20 mm. The ultimate bearing and allowable bearing capacity for depth levels of 1–3 m vary from 1403–2666 kPa and 468–889 kPa for strip footing while square footing varies in between 1956–3489 kPa and 652–1163 kPa respectively.
In this article, we have investigated a fitting proposal model for calculating the crystallite size of pure NiO thin films by varying the structural parameters, such as full width at half-maximum β, lattice parameter a and differences in a − a0. The experimental data of NiO thin films were prepared at several deposition temperatures in the range of 380–460°C. All estimated values of crystallite sizes are proportional to the experimental data. Thus, the measurement of the crystallite size values by this proposed model is compatible with practical measurements qualitative.
Ureje Dam, Ado-Ekiti has witnessed drastic reduction in the water storage capacity of its reservoir. It became imperative to determine the possible cause(s) of the reduction in storage capacity. Geophysical investigation involving the vertical electrical sounding technique of the electrical resistivity method was conducted in the upstream part of the dam. Five lithologic units that include the mud/suspended materials, such as sandy clay, clay, weathered/fractured bedrock and fresh bedrock, were delineated. The respective resistivity and thickness range of the units are 2–19 ohm-m; 147–206 ohm-m, 2–38 ohm-m; 47–236 ohm-m and 455–1516 ohm-m and 0.4–1.9 m; 0.5–2.5 m; 1.0–12.2 m; 7.3–16.4 m and ∞. The thickness of suspended materials, resistivity/thickness of weathered layer and the presence of near-surface impervious layer were used as the main indices for the spatial demarcation of the dam axis in terms of vulnerability to loss of impounded water. Using the cumulative response of the indices, the study concluded that the eastern to southeastern parts of the dam axis showed the highest indications of vulnerability to loss of impounded water.
The article presents the grain size distribution of soil samples from the Precambrian basement within the purview of the textural properties, deduced transportation history and the numerical assessments using statistical parameters. The fourteen soil samples collected from the study area were subjected to sieve analysis in the laboratory for the determination of their grain size distribution. The statistical parameters’ study includes the graphic mean, skewness, sorting and kurtosis. The result of the analysis of the soil samples ranged from coarse to fine-grained samples, moderately and poorly sorted, positively and negatively skewed and the kurtosis also shows leptokurtic as the most dominant which suggests the samples poorly distributed and moderately sorted at the centre of the grain size distribution. These results also suggest the geological environment of the soil samples could be responsible for the poorly and moderately sorted exhibited by the samples deposited in the location.
Lithium additions to Al offer the promise of substantially reducing the weight of alloys, since each 1 wt. % Li added to Al reduces density by 3 % and increases elastic modulus. In the present work, the effect of 1.46 wt. % Li addition to AlSi7Mg (containing 7.05 wt. % Si and 0.35 wt. % Mg) was studied. The alloy showed reduced density and higher hardness after natural ageing. Experimental work showed that micro-structural and mechanical properties changed with Li addition. It was observed that 0.80 wt. % Li addition resulted in formation of new phase AlLiSi which has a great effect to increase hardness of AlSi7Mg. According to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis it was confirmed that the addition of Li causes formation of different phases which are: α-Al, β-Si and AlLiSi.
In this paper, research on the possibilities of sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) separation from other substances in the filter ash sample is presented. The research material contains six components that differ in chemical composition and density. The possibilities of Na2SO4 separation using dry and wet methods were studied. The dry method was based on separation with a centrifugal air classifier at four cut size limits. The wet method was based on the dissolution of water-soluble components, filtration of insoluble components, and drying the products. The sulphur content of the individual products was determined using both methods. The aim of the research was to determine which method is more suitable for separation of the material in a way that most of the material would contain as little sulphur as possible and the rest of the material would contain concentrated sulphur. The wet method proved to be more successful. The product with mass fraction 33.1% of the total mass, obtained from the aqueous solution, contained 8.39% sulphur after filtration and drying. The water-insoluble component, with mass fraction 66.9% of the total mass, contained 0.56% sulphur. The dry method with the centrifugal air classifier proved to be less successful in comparison with the wet method. The particles containing Na2SO4 are very similar in size and density to the other components of the material, so the separation to the desired extent was not achieved.
During carbon steel manufacturing, large amounts of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag are generated. EAF slag, if properly treated and processed into aggregate, is an alternative source of high-quality material, which can substitute the use of natural aggregates in most demanding applications in the construction sector, mostly for wearing asphalt courses. In this screening process of high-quality aggregates, a side material with grain size 0/32 mm is also produced, which can be used as an aggregate for unbound layers in road construction. In this study, the environmental impacts of slag aggregate (fraction 0/32 mm) were evaluated in mixed natural/slag aggregates. Different mixtures of natural/slag aggregates were prepared from aged (28 days) and fresh slag, and their environmental impacts were evaluated using leaching tests. It was shown that among the elements, chromium (Cr) was leached from some mixed aggregates in quantities that exceeded the criterion for inert waste. The data from the present investigation revealed that mixed aggregates, prepared from aged slag (fraction 0/32 mm) and natural stone in the ratio 10/90, are environmentally acceptable and can be safely used in unbound materials for road construction.
Nickel-cobalt ferrite spinels are ferrimagnetic ceramic materials that possess a great potential for application in highdensity magnetic media, recording, color imaging, ferrofluids, and high-frequency devices. A change of their structure from micro- to nano- improves their properties drastically, therefore many methods have been investigated to fabricate nanopowder of these spinels. Gel combustion method is one of them. In this research, Ni0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles were fabricated via gel combustion method using metallic nitrates as an oxidant and citric acid, glycine and urea as fuels and the effects of fuel type on the reaction behavior, structure and morphology of Ni0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated. The reaction behavior was studied by thermal analysis method (TGA-DTA), crystallite size of powders was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their morphology was studied by FE-SEM. The results revealed that the reaction was initiated in urea, glycine and citric at 219 °C, 197 °C, 212 °C, respectively. Samples fabricated from glycine and citric acid had a pure spinel structure but the others fabricated with urea fuel had iron oxide impurity. The crystallite size of nickel cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was in the range of 58 nm to 64 nm and the nanoparticles were agglomerated.
Nanoparticles of Li2MnO3 were fabricated by sol-gel method using precursors of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, and citric acid as chelating agent in the stoichiometric ratio. TGA/DTA measurements of the sample in the regions of 30 °C to 176 °C, 176 °C to 422 °C and 422 °C to 462 °C were taken to identify the decomposition temperature and weight loss. The XRD analysis of the sample indicates that the synthesized material is monoclinic crystalline in nature and the calculated lattice parameters are 4.928 Å (a), 8.533 Å (b), and 9.604 Å (c). The surface morphology, particle size and elemental analysis of the samples were observed using SEM and EDAX techniques and the results confirmed the agglomeration of nanoparticles and, as expected, Li2MnO3 composition. Half cells of Li2MnO3 were assembled and tested at C/10 rate and the maximum capacity of 27 mAh/g was obtained. Charging and discharging processes that occurred at 3 V and 4 V were clearly observed from the cyclic voltammetric experiments. Stability of the electrodes was confirmed by the perfect reversibility of the anodic and cathodic peak positions observed in the cyclic voltammogram of the sample. The Li2MnO3 nanoparticles exhibit excellent properties and they are suitable for cathode materials in lithium ion batteries.