Porous silica, silica-cobalt, silica-zirconia and zirconia membranes were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Multi-step coating (two, six, and ten steps) was used to reduce the defectiveness of the mesoporous layer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that an increase in the number of coating steps improved the mesoporous layer quality. The results obtained from gas permeability tests with nitrogen and argon, however, indicated a reduction in the gas permeability with increasing coating steps. The reduction in gas permeability from two to six coating steps was more pronounced than from sixto ten- coating steps. It was found that six-step coating was economically justified in obtaining a uniform mesoporous layer. The results of pore radius calculations by Knudsen flow mechanism revealed that the pores in the silica, silica-cobalt, and zirconia membranes were in the mesoporous range. The sols with a mean particle size more than 100 nm are not recommended for synthesis of mesoporous layer free of defects. Furthermore, the type of acid used as a catalyst is also important in obtaining a layer without defectiveness.
Co@Co3O4@Nitrogen doped carbon (Co@Co3O4@NDC) composite is synthesized by high temperature carbonization of ionic liquids followed by low temperature thermal oxidation. In the process of high temperature carbonization, cobalt ions are reduced to metallic cobalt, producing Co@Nitrogen doped carbon (Co@NDC). Co@Co3O4@NDC composite is obtained after low temperature oxidation, in which a part of the metallic cobalt is oxidized to Co3O4. The structural characterizations indicate that the composite is composed of three crystalline phases (carbon, Co and Co3O4). The results of transmission electron microscopy study show that the carbon materials not only coat the Co@Co3O4 nanoparticles, but also form carbon network that connects the Co@Co3O4 nanoparticles. This conductive carbon network is beneficial to improve the electrochemical performance of the composite. The electrochemical test results show that the Co@Co3O4@NDC composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, delivering the discharge capacities of 790 and 304 mAh·g−1 after 1500 cycles at 5 C and 10 C. This excellent electrochemical performance is due to synergistic effects of Co3O4, cobalt nanoparticles embedded in carbon which has high conductivity, and nitrogen functional groups.
Hybrid white light-emitting devices (HWLEDs) were fabricated using FTO/PEDOT: PSS/PbS/Alq3/Ni system and synthesized by phase separation process. In the present study, the multiple excitons generation in lead sulfide (PbS) NCs, which is characteristic of PbS NCs, was used to induce an effective and regulated energy transfer to an HWLED. The HWLED consisted of three layers successively deposited on FTO glass substrate; the first layer consisted of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) blended with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) organic polymer in the 1:1 ratio, while the second layer consisted of PbS NCs. Finally, above the layer of the PbS NCs, Tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) layer was deposited. The white light was generated with quite a good efficiency due to the confinement effect that makes the energy gap greater. The characteristics of the current-voltage (I-V) indicate acceptable conditions for the generation of white light by multiple excitons. It was found that the emission levels able to produce white luminescence, classified based on the coordinate system of chromaticity (CIE 1931), are x = 0.31, y = 0.33 while the correlated color temperature (CCT) is about 6250 K. The HWLEDs made from PbS NCs with hole injection from the organic polymer (PEDOT: PSS with PMMA), and electron injection from organic molecules (Alq3) are capable of white light generation.
A sequence of N-doped carbon materials has been synthesized using poly(acrylonitrile)-ionic liquid copolymers as carbon precursors. The nitrogen content and configuration in carbon materials has been changed regularly within a certain range by adjusting the proportion of ionic liquids. We found that the capacity and rate performance increased dramatically after the introduction of ionic liquids, which was attributed to incorporation of higher amount pyridinic-N, pyrrolic-N into the carbon materials. Besides, with the increase of the graphitic-N, the initial Coulombic efficiency decreased from 58.5 % to 53.47 % and the RSEI raised from 66.34 Ω to 140.96 Ω, which was attributed to the higher cohesive energy of Li dimmer than adsorption energy of graphitic-N with Li, since more lithium clusters during the formation of SEI film were formed. The electrochemical tests also revealed the negative role of graphitic-N in the capacity. Therefore, this work provides a feasible method to design the nitrogen content and configuration of the N-doped carbon materials.
Laser-induced local crystallization in Finemet-type alloy was studied using X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDX methods. For investigated conditions of irradiation (wavelength λ = 1.06 µm, laser power density 50 W/cm2), it was found that primary crystallization starts with the formation of the nanocrystalline α-Fe(Si) solid solution at shorter exposure time and the second step crystallization with the nanocrystalline hexagonal H-phase formation occurs in longer exposure time. Changes in the local element concentration were observed at the surface of the irradiated zone and at the ribbon fracture. It was shown that the nonlinear temperature field due to the laser irradiation resulted in changes of the local elements concentration and this feature changed crystallization mechanism of the Finemet-type alloy.
Nanocrystalline zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films are prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method using aqueous solutions of zinc chloride, thiourea ammonium hydroxide along with non-toxic complexing agent tri-sodium citrate in alkaline medium at 80 °C. The deposition time and annealing effects on the optical and morphological properties are studied. The morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the films are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. SEM micrographs exhibit uniform surface coverage. UV-Vis (300 nm to 800 nm) spectrophotometric measurements show transparency of the films (transmittance ranging from 69 % to 81 %), with a direct allowed energy band gap in the range of 3.87 eV to 4.03 eV. After thermal annealing at 500 °C for 120 min, the transmittance increases up to 87 %.
We report a facile one-step non aqueous synthesis of oleic acid stabilized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) with an average diameter of 3 nm to 4 nm by hot injection method. The synthesized oleic acid capped QDs observed by TEM were nearly spherical. The optical properties of QDs were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The structures of QDs and their surface passivation were further verified using transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The quenching effect of the CdTe QD was explored by addition of CdTe nanocrystals into a solution of rod-coil homopolymer (poly[10-(6-(9,9-diethyl-7-(pyridin-4-yl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)naphthalen-2-yloxy) decyl methacrylate]) (PFNA) having pendent pyridine. The gradual addition of quantum dots to the solution of PFNA quenched the PL spectra of PFNA. This may be used to explore the coordination ability of pyridine containing homopolymer with CdTe quantum dots.
The remote phosphor structure produces higher luminous flux but delivers poorer color quality than the conformal or in-cup phosphor structure. To eliminate this weakness, researchers have attempted to improve the chromatic properties of remote phosphor package. This study tends to enhance lighting features for WLEDs including color quality and luminous flux in general or color rendering index (CRI) and color quality scale (CQS) in particular by applying dual-layer remote phosphor structure. In the simulation section, we utilize two identical LEDs that only differ in correlated color temperature values which are 6600 K and 7700 K. The study offers an idea of placing a yellow-green phosphor layer SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ or a red phosphor layer SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ on the yellow phosphor layer YAG:Ce3+ and then modifying the concentrations of SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ and SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ to the suitable values to improve the color quality and lumen output of WLEDs. The results show that red phosphor layer SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ has a significant influence on CRI and CQS improvement. Particularly, the increase of SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ concentration leads to increased CRI and CQS because the red light component increases in WLEDs. On the other hand, the green phosphor layer SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ only brings benefit to the luminous flux. However, the WLEDs’ luminous flux and color quality drop sharply, when SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ and SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ concentrations rise extremely, which is verified based on the Mie-scattering theory and the Lambert-Beer law. In short, the article provides general knowledge and primary information for the production of higher-quality WLEDs.
In this study, CuO/n-Si/Al heterojunction contacts were fabricated by thermal evaporation technique. Electrical characteristics of the samples were investigated with the current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage/frequency (C-V/f), and conductancevoltage (G/V) measurements at room temperature. Also, Cu/n-Si/Al Schottky contact was produced as a reference sample to investigate the electrical properties of the samples. The values of ideality factor (n), barrier height ( Φb) and series resistance (Rs) of the samples were calculated from the forward bias current-voltage (I-V) and reverse bias capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. Also, for checking the consistency of the results, Cheung and Norde functions were used. The experimental result values of CuO/n-Si contact were compared with the values of the reference Cu/n-Si Schottky diode. It was observed that the values of the ideality factor and barrier height of the CuO/n-Si heterojunction were higher than those of the Cu/n-Si Schottky contact, while the series resistance was lower. Also, it has been observed that the value of capacitance decreased with increasing frequency and after a certain value of frequency it was almost constant. The ideality factor of CuO/n-Si/Al heterostructure is about 2.40 and so, it is not close to the ideal behavior.
The geometries, electrostatic potential, Mulliken charge analysis, Natural Bond Orbital analysis and polarizabilities of propyl-para-hydroxybenzoate were calculated using B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated geometries are well matched with the experimental values. The Mullliken atomic charge analysis shows that the eventual charges are contained in the molecule. The NBO analysis explains the intramolecular charge transfer in the PHB molecule. The bonding features of the molecule were analyzed with the aid of Hirshfeld surface analysis. The frontier molecular orbital analysis showed the charge transfer obtained within the molecule. The calculated hyperpolarizability of the PHB molecule was 6.977E −30 esu and it was 8.9 times that of standard urea molecule.