Aircraft, their assemblies, and units must provide high durability and reliability, and maintain mechanical and technological characteristics throughout the life span of the aircraft. Different elements of aircraft structures work under mechanical loads, over a wide temperature range, with varying degrees of exposure to corrosive environments. Aircraft structural materials have a variation in the characteristics values and require the various testing methods for their inspection.
In many NDT methods applied in aviation materials testing, signals that could be represented by a narrowband processes model are used. Known methods of their processing are focused on determining and analyzing the signals amplitude characteristics, but the information resource contained in phase characteristics is not used.
In the article, the methodology for signal processing and determining phase characteristics in the time domain are discussed. It is based on the combination of the discrete Hilbert transform and the deterministic and statistical methods of the phase measurement. There are given examples of the application of the methodology for pulsed eddy current testing of electrically conductive materials and products, ultrasonic thickness measurement of products made of materials have significant ultrasonic attenuation, the realization impulse variant of acoustic impedance flaw detection of products made of composite materials. The examples have shown that the proposed signal processing methodology enables to determine new information parameters and signal characteristics for the industry, and extend the scope of known NDT methods.
The article presents sources of production knowledge and thoroughly describes its identification which on the construction of decision trees, and on the construction of knowledge bases for production processes. The problems that arise during the technical preparation of production are briefly characterized and the advanced algorithm with which decision trees can be built is described in detail. A decision tree was built based on real data from the manufacturing company. Decision trees are presented as a method of knowledge representation.
In paper the issue of a rocket flight impact and overall survivability of such flight by Apis mellifera (western honeybees) specimens is raised. Author claims that it is the key for using them on Mars for pollination in future, as this species is considered as one of the best pollinators, and should be examined before sending first human missions to the Red Planet. Rocket payload ‘BeeO!Logical’ was designed in order to conduct the research, the first of its kind worldwide. Its assumptions are presented along with overall descriptions of the experiments in two sounding rockets. Analysed data included survivability, carbon dioxide concentration values (respiration levels), temperature and humidity. It has been shown that A. mellifera specimens are able to survive the rocket flight. Project development possibilities are described, including widening the scope of the research with bumblebees (Bombus) and implementation of biocybernetic model of bee colony.
Efficiency is a crucial parameter for an airplane to reduce both cost of operations and emission of pollutants. There are several airplane concepts that potentially allow for increasing the efficiency. A few of them were not investigated thoroughly enough yet. The inverted joined wing configuration, with the upper wing in front of the lower one is an example of such concept. Therefore, a project consisting of development of an experimental scaled demonstrator, and its wind tunnel and flight testing, was undertaken by consortium: Institute of Aviation, Warsaw University of Technology, Air Force Institute of Technology and a MSP company. Results led to a conclusion, that the inverted joined wing configuration allows to build an airplane with excellent performance, but its advantage against the conventional airplane is marginal because of large trimming drag of the configuration with relatively high position of the thrust vector in pusher configuration. It was applied because the demonstrator was a flying model of manned airplane and the tractor configuration would affect the pilot’s field of observation. However, in case of the UAV, this reason becomes insignificant. Therefore two configurations of tractor propulsion were tested to see, if their performance is better than the performance of original design.
Internal logistics is a key element of a production process as it specifies product quality, timeliness and value of orders. The purpose of the research was to determine the amount of non-compliance in the selected production process caused by internal logistics operations. The analysis covers both the quantity and type of non-compliance as well as the cost of non-compliance. One of the basic quality management tools was used in the research - Parteo-Lorenz analysis. An attempt was made to identify potential causes of non-compliance. The significant impact of non-compliance arising in internal logistics operations in production costs was pointed out.
Eddy current (EC) method is considered as most applicable for in-service detection of fatigue subsurface cracks initiated in aircraft multilayer structures near the rivet holes. At the same time, the successful solution of this problem is obstructed by additional noise created by defect-free rivets. All EC inspection techniques for the detection of subsurface cracks around the rivets can be classified into three main groups: 1) static mode – carried out by placing the EC probe concentrically on the rivet head; 2) rotational mode – when the EC probe is rotated around the rivet axle and 2) sliding mode – performed by the movement of EC probe along the rivet line or near it. All these approaches have some advantages and limitations. In this study, known EC techniques for the detection of cracks in multilayer aircraft structures are analyzed. New advanced EC techniques for the detection of fatigue cracks in internal layers of the riveted structures based on different types (ring, sliding, and rotational) probes are presented. The static EC method with developed low-height ring-type probe creates the possibility to detect cracks in the difficult of access areas. The possibility to estimate the length of detected cracks by a ring-type probe is shown. The proposed rotational remote field EC probe can detect as small as 1.0 mm long cracks under the button-head rivet and 2 mm thick upper skin with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, in many aircraft structures, fatigue cracks will be detected before a critical threshold achieved. New EC sliding techniques based on remote field and double differential probes were proposed for the rapid detection of cracks in internal layers of riveted aircraft structures. Remote-field EC probe for reliable detection of fatigue cracks in third and fourth layers of five-layer units was proposed. Another sliding technique based on a double differential EC probe gives the possibility to detect transverse cracks in the second layer without the rivet row area access. The main advantage of developed techniques is high inspection reliability due to the possibility to discriminate the signals created by cracks and defect-free rivets. Presented inspection procedures include the selective signal analysis in the complex plane diagram. Proposed EC inspection techniques were successfully implemented into the aircraft maintenance practice.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used as an additive in conventional point-of-sale thermal paper receipts, in the production of many polycarbonate plastics, and epoxy resins lignin for food. BPA is xenoestrogen, a foreign compound that is not naturally produced in living organisms, but which acts similarly to natural 17-ß estradiol (natural estrogen). Due to its weak estrogenic activities, BPA exposure may influence multiple endocrine-related pathway, and is associated with prostate and breast cancer, neurobehavioral deficits, heart disease, and obesity. Furthermore, BPA may act as a DNA methylation agent and cause altered gene expression in the brain. Human exposure to bisphenol A is a matter of controversy. This review shows a potential risks in workplace resulting from contact with bisphenol A. The work presents the contribution of BPA exposure levels via dermal contact and the relationship between BPA exposure level and oxidative DNA damage.
High strength low alloy (HSLA) steels are a new generation of plain carbon steels with significantly improved mechanical properties while maintaining good weldability with common commercial techniques. Residual stress and microstructural analysis of welded HSLA Strenx 700 MC was carried out in this research. Results have shown that the welding process causes significant grain coarsening in the heat affected zone. The microstructural changes are also accompanied with creation of tensile residual stress field in the weld metal and heat affected zone, reaching up-to depth of 4 mm. Tensile residual stresses are well known for acceleration of fatigue crack initiation and together with coarse grains can lead to significant decrease of the fatigue properties of the welded structure.
Remarkable place of reinforced concrete structures in construction field has been noted in wide number of recent researches. Subsequently, their degradation due to aggressive environment has become the topical problem nowadays. Therefore, the formulation of reliable technique for corroded element strength decrement is of great importance, and could be achieved only with the use of complex experimental and theoretical analysis. In this article an attempt is made to propose the mathematical approach to corrosive process modelling, taking into consideration the specifics of its development. According to thorough literature review on existing studies, main specifics of the process were indicated for further suppositions and assumptions formulation. Accordingly, the complex theoretical investigation with corresponding mathematical computations was conducted and results of analytical modelling were discussed. As the initial data for analytical modelling results of previously conducted experiments were used. Analysis of the obtained results shows rather high correspondence with the real conditions of structural element exploitation, taking into consideration material anisotropy and complexity of the corroded zone spread along the rebar cross-section. Proposed methodology for limit force decrease evaluation in general demonstrates reliable results and could be used for further evaluation of corrosion impacts on reinforced concrete elements bearing capacity.
The practical implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and in particular the definition of the critical control points (CCPs) in the food industry is usually a complex structured task. This is particularly the case of food enterprise, where quality/safety manager ability, knowledge of the production processes and ‘‘sensitiveness’’ is usually the discriminate for the proper identification and prioritization of risks. The same applies for the definition of causes which may lead to food safety hazards. This paper addresses the issues of how quality/safety managers can objectively and automatically implement the HACCP principles of hazard analysis in the application of HACCP, which is the identification of risk priorities and of the related CCPs. The proposed methodology combines decision tree analysis approach for the analytical decomposition of the relevant steps in the manufacturing process of ice cream.