Airborne laser scanning (ALS) technology delivers large amount of data collected from airborne level. These data are used for many different applications in forestry, civil engineering, environmental studies and others. To acquire the best possible results from the data, accuracy analysis is a necessary part of data processing chain. Therefore, considering the increasing interest worldwide in the use of laser scanning data, improving the quality control (QC) tools is a crucial pursuit.
This study underlines the possible error sources, summarises the existing QC knowledge for ALS data and proposes an optimised QC procedure. The procedure was implemented in selected applications and evaluated for three different environments, namely, forests, rural areas and croplands.
The proposed solution is almost fully automatic outside from the module that supports the operator in the classification examination. The workflow is scalable and can be expanded with new modules that enhance the functionality. The presented procedures can save up to 30 min of manual checks for every 1 km2 area.
Food and nutritional (in)security remain an important matter of concern, especially in developing countries. Despite the efforts to enhance food security among smallholder soybean households, the proportion of the undernourished population in Butere Sub-County still remains high for unknown reasons. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of food security among smallholder soybean households in Butere Sub-County, Kenya. The study adopted the exploratory research design. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select a sample of 201 respondents. Cross-sectional data were gathered through face-to-face interviews using pretested semi-structured questionnaires and analyzed using ordered logistic regression model. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was used to measure and categorize the soybean household food (in)security status. The results revealed that the household food (in)security status differed across soybean households and was greatly influenced by an interplay of socio-economic, market, and institutional factors. Age of the household head negatively influenced food security, whereas the level of soybean commercialization, education, livestock units, network density, extension visits, and credit access were positively associated with household food security. The study recommends policy interventions that seek to ensure intensive literacy development, frequent extension and training, improved access to credit, and reinvestment in productive assets or inputs for increased production, commercialization and food security. Strengthening of social ties and increased allocation to safety net programs for the aged, vulnerable, and resource-poor households are also recommended.
English yew is one of the most endangered species in Europe. Due to the specificity of this species, its natural regeneration is quite difficult. The aim of the study was to present the current situation of distribution, protection and restoration of the species in Ukraine. The study presents some characteristics of largest natural and artificial yew populations in the country and their protection. In situ and ex situ yew populations are quite different, in terms of bioclimatic conditions what does not affect to the growth characteristics of the populations. In addition, the activities related to the natural and artificial renaturalisation of the yew were analysed. Thus, tending of tree stands, where the natural regeneration of yew was inventoried can be recommended but it should be planned very individually regarding requirements of the site. The introduction of yew seedlings in the conditions of the managed forest is very difficult. Despite the complication of obtaining planting material and high cost, it is important measure to preserve the species. In Ukraine are successful examples of the seed transfer of yew populations by about 450 km in North-East direction (Carpathian yew population) and 700 km in North direction (Crimean yew population). It is an evidence of high ecological plasticity of the species. Moreover, some recommendations that could be useful for increasing the popularization of this species throughout the country were given in conclusions. The wider use of yew in public areas across the country due to unique value of species and more convenient protection of young seedlings. It is worth to continue the inventory of yew locations at the national level and study the possibilities to use as local sources to conservation of this species throughout the country.
The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has been the subject of a number of studies and has been described by many authors as a legume with low nitrogen fixing potential compared to other legume species. The first objective of this study is to assess the development and growth of P. vulgaris L. var. Djedida and its yield at different developmental stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting), in the presence and absence of nitrogen fertilizer (Urea 46) in an arid climate and in a soil containing high level of CaCO3 and assimilable phosphorus. The second objective is to carry out a survey on nodulation, number of spores and mycorrhizal infection under these conditions. The results showed that the nitrogen fertilizer amendment is mainly significant (p< 0.0001) for various morphological parameters. Indeed, great improvement was observed on the majority of the morphological parameters with considerable percentages. However, no significant effect was reported for the roots length. In addition, a negligible number of nodules were obtained in the plot without fertilization and no significant effect on the number of spores was recorded. Furthermore, the effect of fertilization on the arbuscular intensity (a%, A%) and on mycorrhizal colonization (M%, m%) of the roots was found to be significant. The soil in the arid region of Biskra showed significant mycorrhizogenic potential, although the conditions in this region were not very favorable for their development, which could constitute an effective biological resource to improve the tolerance of host plants to biotic and abiotic constraints.
Dark grey podzolized soils on the loess like loams, which are represented in the soil cover within fresh and humidity gradients in the Western Forest Steppe of Ukraine, are characterized by high forest vegetation potential, which ensure the formation of mostly pure and mixed larch and spruce stands with high level of the productivity. Despite the fact that both species are coniferous, their effect on the soil, in particular, on its acid-base indicators (actual and potential forms of acidity, sum of absorbed bases, degree of saturation of bases, content of mobile aluminium), which are important components of soil fertility, are specific. Due to the fact that there is a close interaction between forest plantations and soil properties, changing the participation of species in the stand, it is possible to adjust the actual soil fertility.
The soils under both pure and mixed spruce and larch stands are characterized by a high level of potential acidity that reaches the high acidic values in the upper horizons. A similar reaction of soil solution under coniferous forests is caused by acid hydrolysis of aluminosilicates and accumulation of mobile Al in the rhizosphere zone. Simultaneously, the same acidic characteristics, including the presence of movable aluminium, are also found in soils under broadleaved plantations. In general, acid-exchange properties of soils (high potential acidity, unsaturation of bases and availability of movable aluminium) traditionally are considered as unfavourable for vegetation. However, our researches refute it and prove that within certain values, these indicators do not limit the productivity of pure and mixed spruce and larch stands.
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the most spread forest tree species in Polissya and the most damaged by foliage browsing and stem insects. The aim of this study was to reveal the changes in the distribution of different forest site conditions for 2010–2019 in Scots pine forests of the selected forestry enterprises of Polissya and possible consequences for the spread of foliage browsing insects. Database of Production Association ‘Ukrderzhlisproekt’ (by 2010 and 2019) was analysed for five State Forest Enterprises (FE) that are located in the Central (Zhytomyr Region) and Western (Rivne and Volyn Regions) Polissya, where the large scale outbreaks of stem pests were registered last decade.
The types of forest site conditions were designated in accordance with the Ukrainian typology. Distribution of the forest area by trophotops and hygrotops was evaluated for the forest-covered area, for Scots pine stands, and for pure Scots pine stands in 2010 and in 2019.
For 2010–2019, the area of all Scots pine forests and its proportion in the forest-covered area has significantly decreased in the most of analysed forest enterprises. The change for 2010–2019 in the distribution both by the tropho-tops and by hygrotops of the entire forest-covered area, the area of all Scots pine forests and pure pine forests is not statistically significant. However, in assessment year 2019, the proportion of stands in the moist types of forest site conditions slightly increased. It may be the result of the stands’ mortality in the driest sites after an outbreak of bark beetles. A greater decrease in the proportion of Scots pine forest area in the dry poor, fresh poor, and dry relatively poor forest site conditions was found in the western direction. Therefore, the noted decrease in the foci areas of foliage browsing insects in Polissya in 2010–2012 compared to the 2000–2002 could be associated with a decrease in the most preferred stands, namely the poorest and driest types of forest site conditions.
The study assessed coping strategies adopted during economic recession by male and female members of rural households in Osun State, Nigeria. The study specifically examined the perceived causes of economic recession, investigated the perceived effects and identified the coping strategies adopted by the male and female members of the rural households during economic recession and their level of adoption. A multistage procedure was used to select 120 respondents from 6 local Government Areas of the State. An interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents. The collected data were analysed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, means and independent T-test analysis. The mean ages of the male and female respondents were 45.2 ± 14.1 years and 37 ± 12.6 years respectively. The majority of the males (78.3%) and females (80%) were married with the mean household size of 7 ± 3 people for the male and 6 ± 2 for the female respondents. The cause of economic recession mostly perceived by the male and female respondents was poor economic planning (mean=3.87, 3.77), while prioritizing spending (mean=2.80, 2.52) was the most adopted strategy by both males and females. No significant difference was found in the effects of economic recession on the male and female respondents (t = -0.19; p >0.05) and likewise no significant difference was found in their economic recession coping strategies (t=0.115; p ≥ 0.05). The study concluded that there was no significant difference in the economic recession coping strategies between the male and female members of rural households in the study area.
The study assessed the gender involvement of sedentary Fulani in dairy farming practices in Osun State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 256 respondents from 12 Local Government Areas (LGAs) inhabited by the sedentary Fulani in the study area. Interview schedules were used for quantitative data collection. Data were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, means and standard deviations while one-way ANOVA was used to draw inferences on the hypothesis. The results showed that the mean age of the male and female respondents was 34.05 ± 12.49 years and 33.33 ± 13.14 years respectively. The majority of the male (85.9 %) and female (89.8 %) respondents had no formal education. The mean herd size of male and female respondents was 20 ± 2 and 5 ± 2 heads of cattle respectively. All of the male respondents indicated that fencing, grazing and milking were male gender roles, while all female respondents indicated that cleaning of pens, sales of milk/milk products and processing of milk were female gender roles. The study showed that 42.7% of the male and10.2% of the female respondents had high level of involvement in dairy farming activities, while 24.7% of the male and 44.2% of the female respondents had low level of involvement. Further results revealed that there were significant differences (F = 312.80) between the male and female respondents in their involvement in dairy farming practice. The study concluded that there is gender gap in male and female involvement in dairy farming practices.