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Abstract

Introduction

A significant threat to public health is presented by antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, selective pressure on which results from antibiotic use. Colistin is an antibiotic commonly used in veterinary medicine, but also one of last resort in human medicine. Since the 2015 discovery in China of the mcr-1 gene encoding colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, other countries have noted its presence. This study was to find the mcr-1 gene prevalence in E. coli isolated from poultry slaughtered in Poland.

Material and Methods

Cloacal swabs were taken from December 2017 to October 2018 from broiler chickens in three regions. The samples (n = 158) were grouped as flocks treated with colistin sulphate (n = 87) and those not treated (n = 71). Resistance to antimicrobials commonly used in poultry was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration. The presence of the mcr-1 gene was confirmed by PCR.

Results

Isolates containing the mcr-1 gene were yielded by 11.27% of the samples from not treated flocks and 19.54% of those from treated flocks, but no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the gene was seen between the groups.

Conclusion

The results clearly preclude intensification of selective pressure for colistin resistance due to colistin sulphate treatment because they show that the avian gastrointestinal tract was already inhabited by colistin-resistant E. coli by the time the chickens came to the poultry house.

Abstract

Introduction

White sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) disease is caused by a virus of the eponymous family and is mostly triggered by stressful environmental conditions, i.e. high rearing density, excessive handling, or temporary loss of water. The aim of this study was to develop the most effective diagnostic method for quick and efficient confirmation or exclusion of the presence of WSIV.

Material and Methods

A total of 42 samples (spleen, gills, intestine, skin, kidney, and brain) were collected from eight sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and A. oxyrinchus) aged ≤5+ farmed or caught between 2010 and 2014 in open waters (Dąbie Lake and Szczecin Lagoon). They were tested for WSIV presence using conventional PCR, qPCR, and in situ hybridisation (ISH).

Results

In gross examination, all fish appeared to be healthy. Neither species showed clinical signs typical of WSIV infection. In the majority of cases, fragments of iridoviral DNA were found using molecular methods in the kidneys, and also in the liver, gills, and skin. The detection rate using ISH was 47.37% and most commonly the brain and kidney tissues were positive. The most efficient of the methods used was real-time PCR, with 100% effectiveness in detection of WSIV DNA.

Conclusion

The study demonstrates the capabilities for WSIV diagnosis available to sturgeon farmers and water administrators, indicating useful methods of adequate sensitivity as well as organs to sample in order to achieve the highest probability of viral detection.

Abstract

Introduction

The article describes the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of Salmonella isolates found in subcutaneous abscesses of leopard geckos. The aim of the study was to determine the cause of the abscesses and to characterise isolated Salmonella strains.

Material and Methods

Samples of abscesses from five animals and internal organs (lungs, liver, and gut) of three of them were tested for Salmonella according to the PN-EN ISO 6579:2002/A1:2007 standard. The antimicrobial resistance was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentrations and the genetic similarity of the isolates was assessed with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Results

In total, seventeen Salmonella isolates belonging to five different serovars were found to be susceptible to all tested antimicrobials except streptomycin. The serovars were S. Hadar, S. Fluntern, S. Tennessee, S. enterica subsp. salamae 55:k:z39, and S. Kentucky. Up to three serovars from different organs were isolated from the same individual. In two geckos, Salmonella were detected in the lungs. In three serovars, XbaI-PFGE typing revealed indistinguishable isolates from organs and abscesses.

Conclusion

Multiple Salmonella serovars might be involved in abscess formation and infections. The occurrence of the same PFGE profiles of the isolates may testify to the role of opportunistic organisms in causing infection.

Abstract

Introduction

This study determined the presence of nitric oxide synthesis isoforms (nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS) in thoracic spinal cord segments and nodose ganglia of rats with gamma-irradiated livers.

Material and Methods

Male rats (n = 32) were divided into equal groups A, B, C, and D. In group A, the controls, no radiation was applied, while groups B, C, and D received 10 Gy of ionising gamma radiation. The rats of group B were euthanized at the end of the first day (d1), those of group C on the second day (d2), and those of group D on the third day (d3). The liver, spinal cord segments, and nodose ganglion tissues were dissected and fixed, and the liver sections were examined histopathologically. The other tissues were observed through a light microscope.

Results

Regeneration occurred at the end of d3 in hepatocytes which were radiation-damaged at the end of d1 and d2. On d1, some nNOS-positive staining was found in the neuronal cells of laminae I–III of the spinal cord and in neurons of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, some staining was observed in lamina X of the spinal cord, while none of note was in the nodose ganglion. Dense iNOS-positive staining was seen on d1 in the ependymal cells of the spinal cord and in the glial cells of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, there was still considerable iNOS staining in both tissues. There was clear eNOS-positive staining in the capillary endothelial cells of the spinal cord and light diffuse cytoplasmic staining in the neurons of the nodose ganglion on d1, and on d3, intense eNOS-positive staining was visible in several endothelial cells of the spinal cord, while light nuclear staining was recognised in the neurons of the nodose ganglion.

Conclusion

The nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS isoforms are activated in the spinal cord and nodose ganglion of rats after ionising radiation insult to the liver.

Abstract

Introduction

Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is one of the most threatening to domestic and wild dogs.

Material and Methods

A total of 132 clinical samples were isolated from domestic dogs with diarrhoea from Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, and Anhui provinces from 2016 to 2017, and 56 were positive for CPV-2 by PCR. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the isolate sequences incorporating 53 non-Chinese reference strains.

Results

VP2 sequences showed the strains mainly to be new CPV-2a/2b and CPV-2c genotypes. The Ala5Gly, Phe267Tyr, Ser297Ala, Tyr324Ile, Gln370Arg, Asn426Asp or Asn426Glu, and Thr440Ala sites in the VP2 protein antigenic region were found to have high mutation rates. The VP2 tertiary structural model shows that the change at these mutation points is a factor for the changes in the protein structure. Significant differences between the Central Chinese strains and others were found, indicating that evolution is geographically related and extended in major regions. The homology between the identified strains confirmed their relationship. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the common genotypes in the same clusters differ slightly in homology and evolutionary history.

Conclusion

This epidemiological study enriches the available data and serves as an important reference for studies on the evolution of CPV and selection of vaccines in China.

Abstract

Introduction

Integrons are mobile DNA elements that allow for acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes among pig farm-derived bacteria. Limited information is available on integrons of Staphylococcus aureus from pig farms. The aim of this study was to characterise and investigate the prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons in multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. aureus isolates from pig farms.

Material and Methods

A total of 724 swabs were collected from 12 pig farms in Chongqing, China, and examined by conventional microbial and molecular methods.

Results

In total, 68 isolates were S. aureus, 57 of which were methicillin resistant (MRSA). All 68 isolates were MDR strains and carried integrons, of which 88.2% (60/68) harboured both class 1 and 2. In addition, 85.3% (58/68) of the class 2 integron-positive isolates carried the β-lactam resistance gene (blaTEM-1), and 66.7% (40/60) of the class 1 integron–positive isolates carried the aadA1c, aadA1 or dfrA1 gene for respective streptomycin and spectinomycin or trimethoprim resistance.

Conclusions

Class 1 and 2 integrons are common among the pig farm-derived S. aureus isolates. On account of their significance for public health, the prevalence of the integrons and their associated resistance genes in pig farm-derived S. aureus isolates should be paid special attention.

Abstract

Introduction

Antimicrobial resistance is a global health threat. It has been studied in humans and domestic animals, but there is a lack of data on wild animals. The objective of this study is the elucidation of its patterns in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from wild mammals of the Autonomous Community of Aragón (Spain).

Material and Methods

A total of 103 mammals (Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Chiroptera, Erinaceomorpha, and Lagomorpha) were studied. A recovery centre provided 32 and hunting 71. Nasal and faecal samples yielded 111 staphylococci, which were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry. A susceptibility test to 11 antibiotics was carried out, and statistical analysis was performed.

Results

Some differences were detected in bacterial prevalence depending on how the mammal fed. Artiodactyla, mainly hunted, were predisposed to carry coagulase-positive staphylococci. The staphylococci species recovered were resistant to at least two classes of antibiotics, and were disseminated in all of the geographical areas studied.

Conclusion

Resistant staphylococci are widely distributed in the wild mammals in the areas of the study, but the resistance quantified in them is lower than that to be expected if the use of antibiotics in farms had a direct influence on the wildlife and its environment. On the other hand, resistance to antibiotics restricted to human use was widely disseminated in various wild animal species.

Abstract

Introduction

This paper reports polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in fish collected from Polish and Vietnamese farms and the related risk for consumers.

Material and Methods

Altogether, 160 samples were analysed using an isotope dilution technique with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). To characterise the potential health risk associated with PCDD/F and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) intake, doses ingested in two 100 g portions of fish by adults and children were calculated and expressed as the percentage of the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) newly established by the EFSA in November 2018 at 2 pg WHO-TEQ kg−1 b.w.

Results

Generally, levels in fish muscles were low in relation to maximum limits (4), being in the range of 0.02–3.98 pg WHO-TEQ g−1 wet weight (w.w.) for PCDD/F/DL-PCBs and 0.05–24.94 ng g−1 w.w. for NDL-PCBs. The highest concentration was found in eel muscles. The least polluted were pangas and zanders and the levels were at the limits of quantification. Consumption of two portions of fish per week results in intakes of 9– 866% TWI by children and 4–286% TWI by adults.

Conclusion

Frequent consumption of some species (for example eel and bream) can pose a health risk to vulnerable consumers and especially children and pregnant women.

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of this study was to determine changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS), serum antioxidant capacity (SAC), oxidative stress index (OSi), and α-tocopherol (α-T) during the periparturient period in healthy and mastitic cows and to further investigate whether these parameters can be used as a tool for identifying cows at higher risk of developing mastitis.

Material and Methods

Blood samples from 110 dairy cows from two commercial farms were obtained at dry-off, calving, and 30 days post-partum. Healthy cows formed group A (n = 90) and mastitic cows B (n = 20). Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation, and the aforementioned parameters were determined. A general linear model was used for analysing the associations among the determined blood parameters, the health of the animals’ udder, and the sampling time.

Results

ROS and OSi values were higher (P < 0.001) by a respective 14% and 26%, and SAC values lower (P < 0.001) by 10% in group B than in group A at calving. ROC curve analysis revealed that all determined parameters at calving and α-T at dry-off and 30 days post-partum had excellent or acceptable predicting ability for mastitis incidence.

Conclusion

This information provides a tool for early identification of cows at high risk of developing mastitis, allowing the implementation of intervention strategies.

Abstract

Introduction

Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is a Gram+, anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that can produce toxins, and it is mainly because its virulence is attributed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of C. difficile and hyper virulent ribotypes in chicken carcasses and the antibiotic susceptibility of isolated strains.

Material and Methods

C. difficile was isolated from chicken carcasses by microbiological methods, its ribotypes were identified by means of PCR, the toxin production ability was defined by ELISA, and the susceptibility of the isolates to selected antibiotics was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration evaluator strips.

Results

The bacterium was isolated from 69 out of 185 (37.3%) examined chicken carcass samples, and six out of the 69 (8.7%) isolates were identified as ribotype 027. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100.0%), vancomycin (97.1%), metronidazole (88.4%), and tetracycline (95.7%), whereas they were resistant to cefotaxime (97.1%) and imipenem (89.9%).

Conclusion

The results of this study demonstrate the presence of toxigenic C. difficile isolates such as ribotype 027 (one of the most common causes of C. difficile infection in humans) in chicken carcasses. Although there is no case for stating that C. difficile is a food-borne pathogen, the presence of C. difficile in chicken may be considered to be a potential risk to consumers.