Diarrhea caused by multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an important and common problem in companion animals, especially dogs. Moreover, these dogs may serve as a reservoir of pathogenic strains of E. coli that may cause enteric and extra-intestinal infections in humans and other animals. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of E. coli isolates from diarrheic dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. In fecal samples of 200 dogs with diarrhea, 147 E. coli strains (73.5%) were isolated and characterized by the standard bacteriological techniques (culture, biochemical tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). Out of the 147 positive isolates, 45, 50, and 52 were from Elkanemi Park, Magaram, and Sabon gari wards respectively. The isolates show 100% resistance to chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, and ceftriaxone, 96.6% to amoxicillin, and 95.9% to gentamicin, while all (100%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. All the isolates showed multiple antimicrobial resistance. The result of the current study showed that dogs in Maiduguri are important reservoirs of multidrug-resistant E. coli. Therefore, it is important to adopt and apply guidelines for the correct use of antimicrobials in small animal practice to reduce the emergence of multidrug resistance among E. coli in companion animals.
Bovine rotavirus A (BRVA) is a frequent causative agent of diarrhea in neonatal calves. Accurate and rapid diagnosis is crucial to prevent calf mortality from BRVA induced diarrhea. Currently, variety of diagnostic methods are being used to detect BRVA from calves’ feces: antibody-based rapid test and ELISA, and molecular-based RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the rapid test (Immunochromatography), ELISA, and RT-PCR assays, using RT-qPCR as the gold standard, in detection of BRVA in diarrheic calves’ fecal samples. One hundred (n=100) clinically diarrheic fecal samples were tested with four different diagnostic tools. The percent of samples positive by rapid test, ELISA, RT-PCR and RT-qPCR was 10%, 16%, 17%, and 33%, respectively. The agreement between different assays was 75% to 99%. The highest agreement was observed between ELISA and RT-PCR assay (99%). The lowest agreement was recorded (75%) between rapid test and RT-qPCR. The sensitivity of the rapid test, ELISA, and RT-PCR were 30%, 49%, and 52%, respectively when compared to the reference test (RT-qPCR), whereas specificity was 100% for all assays. In conclusion, none of the frequently used diagnostic tests showed a satisfactory level of sensitivity to identify BRVA in calves’ feces. Therefore, the use of a more sensitive rapid test should be used to identify infected calves in field conditions in order to prevent calf mortality from rotaviral diarrhea.
The study has aimed to investigate and determine the anatomical position, shape, size, and histological features of the ductus venosus, and its role as a shunt in the fetal circulatory system in domestic ruminants. The research was conducted on 19 bovine, 11 sheep and 5 goat fetuses, aborted at the late stage of pregnancy or deceased just after delivery. The general anatomy of the ductus venosus was investigated by in-situ dissection of the corrosive cast obtained by injection of 25% solution of Vinylite mass through the umbilical vein. For histological examination, the fetal tissue samples were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson’s trichrome, Verhoeff-Van Gieson and Gomori's silver stain. The results showed that ruminant fetal ductus venosus is a curved, trumpet-shaped vessel, situated in the central part of the liver, above the porta hepatis. Its ventral part is constricted in the form of an isthmus, having a prominent lip-like thickening at the junction with the portal sinus. Histological examination showed the dominant presence of collagen and elastic fibers in its tunica media, with thin bands of smooth muscle fibers oriented in a longitudinal and circular direction indicating ability for vasoconstriction and vasodilatation.
The treatment of full-thickness skin burn using nanomaterials is promising as a medical application reducing the risk of infection and severe dermal scarring. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of nanomaterials, particularly 3% silver nanoparticles containing ointment (3% SNO), on the full-thickness skin burn of laboratory mice. A total number of 36 male mice were used, equally divided into three groups: negative control (not burned and not treated); positive control (+ve) (burned and treated with castor oil and white petroleum jelly); and SNO-treated group (burned and treated with 3% SNO). The skin of the animals’ back was shaved. A 2x0.5 cm metal plate was heated on a burner to burn the skin of the animals of positive control and SNO-treated groups. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial suspension was applied to the burnt area. The application of SNO, as well as the mixture of white petroleum jelly and castor oil, was started after 6 hours of inducing burns and continued for 14 days (three times daily) in the respected groups. The SNO-treated group showed accelerated healing within 14 days demonstrated by re-epithelialization of the epidermal layer and proliferation of the fibroblasts in the dermal layer. Less healing evidence was observed in the +ve control group in the same period. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study that uses a 3% SNO formula and has found that it has a promising impact on the treatment of infected skin burns.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood oxidative stress biomarkers and antibody response to vaccination in calves.
Material and methods
Thirty-four clinically healthy 2 week old Japanese Black calves were randomly assigned to two groups. Seventeen calves formed the VC group which received 1,000 mg of vitamin C daily from 2 to 8 weeks of age, and the other 17 calves of the control group did not receive supplementation. All calves received an inactivated Histophilus somni vaccine at 4 and 8 weeks of age. Blood samples were taken at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age.
The concentration of the serum reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), and the oxidative stress index (OSI), which is calculated from the d-ROMs and biological antioxidant potential, were significantly lower at 8 weeks of age in the VC group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The antibody titres to H. somni in the VC group were significantly higher than those in the control group at 12 weeks of age after the second vaccination (P < 0.05).
Vitamin C supplementation to calves may reduce oxidative stress and enhance the antibody production after vaccination with H. somni.
Swine DNA viruses have developed unique mechanisms for evasion of the host immune system, infection and DNA replication, and finally, construction and release of new viral particles. This article reviews four classes of DNA viruses affecting swine: porcine circoviruses, African swine fever virus, porcine parvoviruses, and pseudorabies virus. Porcine circoviruses belonging to the Circoviridae family are small single-stranded DNA viruses causing different diseases in swine including poly-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, and porcine respiratory disease complex. African swine fever virus, the only member of the Asfivirus genus in the Asfarviridae family, is a large double-stranded DNA virus and for its propensity to cause high mortality, it is currently considered the most dangerous virus in the pig industry. Porcine parvoviruses are small single-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Parvoviridae family that cause reproductive failure in pregnant gilts. Pseudorabies virus, or suid herpesvirus 1, is a large double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Herpesviridae family and Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. Recent findings including general as well as genetic classification, virus structure, clinical syndromes and the host immune system responses and vaccine protection are described for all four swine DNA virus classes.
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects both humans and animals, the occurrence of which increases markedly during and after heavy rainfall and flooding. The aim of this study was to determine the serological prevalence of leptospiral infection in livestock after a voluminous flood in 10 districts of the Malaysian state of Kelantan.
Material and Methods
In December 2014, Kelantan was hit by an extensive flood. A total of 1,728 serum samples were collected from livestock from the state, comprised of 1,024 from cattle, 366 from goats and 338 from sheep, and they were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT).
Altogether, 203 (11.75%; 203/1728; 95% CI: 10.20%–13.30%) of the tested sera were found to be positive serologically. Cattle had the highest prevalence of 14.16% (145/1024), while goats and sheep had 11.20% (41/366) and 5.03% (17/338) respectively. The most frequent serovars detected were Hardjo-bovis (3.70%; 64/1728), Hebdomadis (2.08%; 36/1728) and Pomona (1.04%; 18/1728). There was a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) between livestock that were exposed to the flood and seropositivity.
This study showed that flood is a risk factor that can play a role in the epidemiology of leptospiral infection in livestock.
The current study was conducted to evaluate the different concentrations of deltamethrin (DEL; Exp. 1) and the protective role of idebenone (IDB) supplemented with toxic dose of deltamethrin (Exp. 2) during chilled storage of ram semen. Collected samples were pooled and diluted at 500×106 spermatozoa per mL. In Exp. 1, effect of DEL at 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 μM levels were evaluated on different variables of spermatozoa motion characteristics. In Exp. 2, different amounts of IDB (2, 4, and 8 μM) concurrent with constant doses of DEL (10 μM) were examined on semen quality upon chilled preservation up to 72 h. Indices of spermatozoa kinematics, functionality of plasma membrane and viability were recorded. Biochemical metabolites were measured in spermatozoa and its medium (extender) at different time points. In Exp.1, different parameters of spermatozoa kinematics were affected by exposure to DEL in a dose dependent manner. In Exp. 2, combination of IDB with DEL, resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) increase in total motility, forward progressive motility and curvilinear path velocity compared to DEL group at 24, 48 and 72 h. Simultaneous administration of IDB with DEL increased the percentage of spermatozoa with functional membrane and viability compared to DEL group at 72 h (P < 0.05). The amounts of lipid peroxidation index were lower in medium of combination groups compared to DEL group at 48 h and 72 h (P < 0.05). Antioxidant capacity were higher in spermatozoa and medium of IDB treated groups compared to DEL group at 72 h (P < 0.05). Amounts of total nitratenitrite and superoxide dismutase activity of spermatozoa and medium did not affect by treatment (P > 0.05). In conclusion, IDB could ameliorate oxidative and peroxidative damages induced by DEL mild toxicity upon cold preservation of ram semen.
Recently, microalgae, natural marine resources, have gained increasing interests as a feed for animals. Chlorella vulgaris microalgae are single-cell microorganisms that have been used to provide nutrition to humans and animals for centuries. In the present review, we unveil the composition and nutritive value of C. vulgaris microalgae as a feed for ruminants. Research has shown that inclusion of C. vulgaris microalgae in diets improved feed utilization, milk production and quality, growth performance, and meat quality in ruminants, as a result of improved diet nutritive value leading to improved feed utilization. Very low doses of C. vulgaris in feed enhance growth and lactational performance of ruminants. Additionally, C. vulgaris showed very promising results as an alternative to corn and soybean meal; however, it is an expensive protein feed. Therefore, the main constraint to use of C. vulgaris as a feedstuff is its high cost of production, making improvement of cultivation technology to reduce the production costs a critical issue in the near future.
The aim of the study was to compare morphometric indices and the mineralization level of humerus, femur and tibia in Leghorn (H-22), Sussex (S-66) and Rhode Island Red (R-11) hens at different age (weeks 6., 16., 45. and 64.), as well as some blood parameters. The material for the experiment was one-day old chicks of breeds: Leghorn (H-22), Sussex (S-66) and Rhode Island Red –RIR (R-11), which were separated into three groups. At 6, 16, 45 and 64 weeks of the study, 10 birds selected from each group were weighed, slaughtered, and their right femurs, tibiae and humeri were dissected. After removing soft tissues, the bones were weighed and measured for length, diameter, and the Seedor index (SI) was calculated. The bones were analysed for the content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and crude ash (CA). At 64 weeks, blood was collected from the hens and analysed for the concentration of Ca, P, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. The study showed that hen breed had an effect mostly on morphometric indices of the bones such as bone weight and diameter, and the Seedor index (SI), while the age of birds had an effect on the bone mineralization level up to 45 weeks of age. The bone mineralization did not decrease in the studied breeds of hens at the end of the laying period. It was also found that heavier birds (RIR) had greater diameter bones and a higher SI, but the content of ash and minerals in the bones of that breed was generally similar to the Leghorn and Sussex hens. RIR hens exhibited higher phosphorus plasma concentration compared to Sussex hens. This may suggest that RIR birds have a slightly stronger bone system compared to Leghorn and Sussex hens.