Screen golf is a product of the combination of modern technology and leisure. This new form of sport can provide people with disabilities opportunities for positive life experiences through sport participation. This study aimed to investigate differences in the effect of screen golf participation on psychosocial factors (self-esteem, isolation, depression, loneliness, and life satisfaction) in people with and without disabilities. With 293 survey respondents in this study, the Multivariate Analysis of Variances (MANOVA) was performed twice to measure differences between groups after ensuring the validity and reliability of the instrument. Participation in screen golf demonstrated a positive effect for all factors for people with disabilities. Results also showed a more positive effect on self-esteem and life satisfaction for people without disabilities with screen golf experience than for those without any screen golf experience. This study demonstrated that screen golf, as a physical leisure activity, was helpful to all study participants, with greater positive effects observed for participants with disabilities. This finding suggests that ubiquitous leisure activities such as screen golf made possible by advancements in modern technologies offer desirable benefits to many. This study is highly meaningful since it demonstrated how technologies could be helpful to people with disabilities who historically have has less access to leisure activities than able-bodied people.
When studying biographical narratives constituting “The Michael Jordan Myth,” certain patterns emerge. For example, it is possible to identify mythemes corresponding with Campbell’s concept of the hero’s journey monomyth. This study focuses on a particular pattern, which is a progression of addiction with its phases, axial points, and list of symptoms. One of the most frequently used epithets in regard to the hero of this particular myth is “competitive.” While this is a quality of numerous outstanding athletes, in Jordan’s case competitiveness appears as a dominant quality and a driving force throughout his entire career.
The premise of my study is the assumption that Jordan’s competitive spirit is a symptom of behavioral addiction and winning/defeating rivals is the behavior of an addict. The goal of the study is to use Jordan’s biographies and, based on Jellinek’s model of addiction progression, to verify whether Jordan’s accomplishments on and off the court can be viewed as symptoms of unclassified behavioral addiction.
The current study was conducted to examine the interactive effects of basic psychological needs satisfaction (BPNS), hedonic and eudaimonic motives on intrinsic regulation. To assess the causal relationship, two-wave time-lagged data collection was employed. A total of 159 youth athletes in Japan participated in online surveys twice (three-month time lag between two data points). The results indicated that the effect of BPNS on intrinsic regulation was moderated by hedonic and eudaimonic motives. Interestingly, BPNS negatively affected intrinsic regulation among youth athletes with low hedonic motives. This negative impact was further augmented when the level of eudaimonic motives was higher. Conversely, BPNS positively influenced intrinsic regulation among youth athletes with high hedonic motives. This positive impact of BPNS was more prominent when eudaimonic motives were lower. Overall, the findings suggest that when intrinsic regulation is the central concern, youth athletes should focus more on seeking enjoyment while putting self-development aside to maximize the positive impact of BPNS.
In the UK, successive governments have prioritised the use of sport for developmental purposes, a range of broader community matters, and as a purposeful tool to help at-risk youth. However, given the accepted wisdom underpinning the continued investment in sports projects that reflect ideas centred on youth and community development, it is not unsurprising that a number of authors (for instance, Coalter, 2007; Griffiths and Armour, 2011) question the validity and true nature of using sport in this context. This is especially so when some research indicates that it may well be the schemes, people, or ancillary benefits within projects that are the primary factor in any appreciable change in pro-social behaviours, rather than sport per se (Sandford, Armour, and Duncombe, 2008). This study used interviews with eight experienced community sport development officers, coaches, and project organisers in the south of the UK. The findings revealed that sport and social intervention projects could develop participants’ self-esteem, resilience, and aspirations, and that sport was seen as a helpful tool to help facilitate this. However, the findings also emphasised that any meaningful changes in behaviour were also subject, and subordinate to, the importance of developing positive coach-participant relationships. The implications are discussed within the paper.
The aim of this study is to examine the predictor relationships between the satisfaction sport science students obtain from communication with lecturers and their organizational identification. Moreover, the study aims to determine whether there is a difference in both dependent variables in terms of gender, grade, whether they like their educational department, desire to change their department, establishment of out-of-class communication with lecturers, and being in active communication with lecturers in class. In this study, quantitative correlational techniques are used. Our sample comprised 252 (x¯ age = 21.39 ± 2.16) sport science students (127 female; 125 male). The “Student Communication Satisfaction Scale” developed by Goodboy, Martin, and Bolkan (2009) and adapted to Turkish by Akın, Yalnız, and Kazaz (2015) was used as a data collection tool, as was the “Organizational Identification Scale” developed by Mael and Ashforth (1992) and adapted to Turkish by Tak and Aydemir (2004). Parametric data was analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis, simple linear regression analysis, 2 × 2 MANOVA, and two-way ANOVA. Nonparametric data was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis H statistical test technique. The results indicate a strong and positively oriented relationship between the communication satisfaction and organizational identification of sport science students. Moreover, it is seen that communication satisfaction is a crucial predictor of organizational identification. According to our data, females’ communication satisfaction and identification levels are much higher than those of males. Students’ like or dislike of the department where they receive an education and the quality and form of communication they have established with lecturers result in significant differences in both dependent variables.
Foreign investors have been very active in football clubs in many different countries. These clubs see significant benefits from foreign investment. However, in Turkey, this practice has not yet been implemented. Furthermore, there has been no general discussion about the applicability of this system in Turkish clubs, despite almost all Turkish football clubs being in a state of financial turmoil. To fill this void, this study aims to research the views of Turkish football fans regarding the possible sale of their club to a foreign investor. A total of 1172 football fans across Turkey completed a questionnaire form for the research. The distributions of fans’ views were analyzed by forming crosstabs and using the chi-square test of independence. A total of 66.8% of Turkish fans who participated in the research are against the possible sale of their club to a foreign investor, while 33.2% of the fans support this situation. Additionally, 55.5% of the fans think they have adequate information about club ownership, whereas 44.5% of them think they do not have adequate information. Also, desire for financial return, sporting success, and corporate management were found as reasons to support foreign ownership while nationalism and a sense of belonging to a club were found as reasons to oppose foreign ownership. The study indicates that fans oppose or support the idea of foreign ownership for various reasons. The study describes these factors in the context of past studies and also presents the path for future research.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine within the framework of symbolic interaction theory and field theory how women national ice hockey players understand ice hockey through their experiences. Semi-structured interviews were used to understand the experiences of 21 ice hockey players from the Turkish women’s national team, and themes were developed from the data using the thematic analysis methods. A total of three main themes and two sub-themes were created after the analysis. In this context, three main themes related to the theoretical framework were established: “Symbolic Meanings: A Strong Ice Hockey Player,” “Ice Hockey As a Life Space,” and “A Hard Fight On the Ice.” In addition, under the main theme of “Ice Hockey As a Life Space” are two sub-themes: “World of Emotions” and “Constraints.” Ice hockey is perceived by women players as a living space that expresses a firm stance towards life. Despite the presence of traces of the concept of gender, ice hockey is not seen as a fully gendered area by Turkish players. In general, women players reported the lack of financial and social support as limiting factors for participation in ice hockey, while moral support and high motivation were supporting factors.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical effort and DNA methylation in the promoter region of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). The research group included 100 athletes (mean age = 22.88, SD = 6.35), whereas the control group were 239 healthy male volunteers matched for age (mean age = 21.69, SD = 3.39). Both, the control and the research group, included individuals with Caucasian origin from the same region of Poland. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes using a DNA isolation kit (A&A Biotechnology, Gdynia, Poland). Bisulfite modification of 250 ng DNA was performed using the EZ DNA Methylation Kit (Zymo Research, Orange, CA, USA), according to manufacturer's instructions. The methylation-specific PCR assay was carried out in a Mastercycler epgradient S (Eppendorf, Germany). We observed that the level of general methylation of the CpG island was similar for both groups. Further exploration of individual CpG sites allowed to notice that there were significant differences in methylation status in specific positions. Nonetheless, there was no rule that would indicate either higher or lower methylation of individual sites, four of them were methylated at a higher level (positions 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 23, 25, 26, 27, 29 and 30), while one showed an inverse trend (position 3). More precise analysis with the usage of Bonferroni correction for multiple tests indicated that differences in CpG site methylation were mainly increased in several positions and decreased in position 3.
This study was designed to assess systemic cardio-respiratory, metabolic and perceived responses to incremental arm cycling with concurrent electrical myostimulation (EMS). Eleven participants (24 ± 3 yrs; 182 ± 10 cm; 86 ± 16.8 kg) performed two incremental tests involving arm cycling until volitional exhaustion was reached with and without EMS of upper-body muscles. The peak power output was 10.1% lower during arm cycling with (128 ± 30 W) than without EMS (141 ± 25 W, p = 0.01; d = 0.47). In addition, the heart rate (2-9%), oxygen uptake (7-15%), blood lactate concentration (8-46%) and ratings of perceived exertion (4-14%) while performing submaximal arm cycling with EMS were all higher with than without EMS (all p < 0.05). Upon exhaustion, the heart rate, oxygen uptake, lactate concentration, and ratings of perceived exertion did not differ between the two conditions (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, arm cycling with EMS induced more pronounced cardio-respiratory, metabolic and perceived responses, especially during submaximal arm cycling. This form of exercise with stimulation might be beneficial for a variety of athletes competing in sports involving considerable generation of work by the upper body (e.g., kayaking, cross-country skiing, swimming, rowing and various parasports).